Europe

Europe and its Intriguing Connections to the History of BritainĀ and the making of theĀ Union

Britain the island, and its complicated relationship with Europe, a continuing debate, as relevant today as it has been over a thousand years. Scroll down beyond the Map and see our Timeline and chronology of major European events that provide context, background and/or directly impact on British History, its friends, neighbours, allies and enemies throughout history.

Europe and its connection to British History using our interactive Map


The connections reach far and wide, from the Norman Conquest to WW2, geography has more than played its part. Here the map zooms out for a pan-european view. This page is centered on the Poland (which became the focus of some of us in Europe, all too late) at the start of WW2, But you can pan and zoom to wherever you would like to roam. Pins mark places where we have content posted and mapped but you can also use the maps to get a feel for the geography, as globally or locally as you like.

European timeline and chronology related to Britain and its history

A timeline and chronology that will grow over time and focus during 2015 on events relevant to Wars and major events across Europe, initially in the 18th,19th and 20th Centuries in particular.

Regional: European Events Timeline and Chronology

Date(s)EventPartiesPlace
1789-1799French Revolution : a major force across engaging British sympathy for different factions and in particular the hard-pressed French Aristocracy with relations and kindred spirits in Britain. Revolutionary fervour was a real concern to British government in the period to 1815.French Civil War the population of France, Royalist, Aristocrats and Republicans and the poor.France
1803-1815Napoleonic Wars a continuation and extension of the French Revolutionary wars. Battle of Waterloo and Battle of Trafalgar. British forces fwages part unded by Rothschilds.Napoleon, Wellington Nelson British French RussianMediterranean France Egypt Germany
1914-1918WW1 World War I the first world war of two in just a hundred years.Germany Britain USA Ottoman Empire British Empire and its Dominions German Empire and its Dominions. European Allies France BelgiumEuropean Middle East, African Theatres of War, global in scale. Too many to list major events will be added with places.
1917Political: Balfour declaration re homeland for Jewish People in PalestineBALFOUR Foreign Secretary to Rothschilds and ZionistsBritain , Palestine (See Middle East Map)
1921IRISH QUESTION: Treaty is agreed for formation of Irish Free State excludes 6 counties of Northern IrelandBritish Government, Irish Republicans, Northern Ireland UnionistsSouthern Ireland EIRE Irish Free State, 6 counties of Northern Ireland.
1933Political: Hitler comes to Power in 1933Germany, Adolf Hitler, Nazi PartyBerlin Germany
1933Public opinion: King and Country debate in Oxford University Union. Post WW1 interpreted as younger generation are anti-war.Oxford University StudentsOxford England
1935 10 OCTMilitary and Political - Ethiopian Crisis: Italy invades Ethiopia. Unopposed by Western European Powers.Italy, EthiopiaEthiopia Africa
1935 10 OCT-DECPolitical - Hoare Laval Pact: Britain ready to accede to the Italian act of Aggression in ethiopiaItaly, France,Britain Samuel Hoare British Foreign Sec and Pierre Laval French PM Denounced in the press in UK as an act of appeasement.Ethiopia
1935Political and Military Hitler repudiates/rejects the military restrictions of the Treaty of VersaillesHitler, Germany, Nazi partyGermany,Europe
1935Military and Political -Anglo-German Naval Agreement enabling Germans to build their naval strength to 1/3rd of British Naval StrengthGermany, Britain, Naval forcesNavy
1935-1937UK Political BALDWIN wins General Electionon policy of no Big ArmamensStanley BALDWIN ConservativeBritish Prime Minister PMBritain UK Parliament
1936Germany reoccupies with troops 'demilitarised zone' of Rhineland defying the Treaty of Versailles Hitler, GermanyRhineland Germany
1936Spanish Cvil War Commences, Britain adopts non-interventionist approach despite heavy German and Italian involvement.Hitler Germany, Italy, Spain FrancoSpain
1937-1949CHAMBERLAIN elected Prime Minister in Britain pursuing line of 'appeasement.'Conservative Party Neville ChamberlainBritain UK
1938Anschluss Austria Capitulates without a fight and absorbed into Third Reich contrary to Treaty of Versailles. Jewish and civilian oppression and persecution commences.Germany, Austria, Nazi PartyAustria
1938Germany threatens Czechoslovakia over province of German Czechs 'Sudetenland' It is a pretense and excuse for invasion. Britain does not act to protect the Czechs but sues for peace with Hitler.Czechs, Germans, Hitler, Britain, FranceCzechoslovakia, Sundentenland (German Speaking Czechs and non-germans, )
1938Chamberlain continues appeasement policy and seeks to negotiate with Hitler, believes victory with MUNICH AGREEMENT surrendering Sudetenland to GermanyBritain, Germany, Hitler, Chamberlain (British PM)Munich Germany
1938-1939Russia is double dealing, negotiates with Britain in Moscow and in parallel with Germans Soviets do not enter as a World War at this stage/Russia/Soviet powers.
1939-1945WW2 2nd World War in the 20th Century, events added during the war as additional lines Germany Italy and Japan largely against the Western AlliesGermany western AlliesToo many to list but starts Czechoslovakia Austria and Poland aggressions by Nazi Germany under Hitler.
1939-1940World remained neutral apart from Britain France and Germany. The rest of the world was nervously and notionally at peace. This was not unlike other territorial disputes and many nations sought to avoid being absorbed into war, post WW1 experience. But in this War it was different Germans introduced oppression, persecution and execution of civilians and there was no moral outcry of substance from the rest of the World.Germany, France, BritainPoland, Czechoslovakia
1939 03 MARGermany invades and occupies PRAGUE in Czechoslovakia.Germany Hitler, CzechsPrague Czechoslovakia
1939 04 APRBritain introduces peacetime ConscriptionBritish GovernmentBritain Parliament
1939 08 AUGANGLO-POLISH Agreement Signed with guarantees to Poland and Romania.British and Polish GovernmentPoland and Romania
1939Hitler demands Polish frontier adjusted in German favour.Hitler GermanyPoland Germany
1939 09 SEP 01stNazi Germany stages a Polish act of aggression to justify invasion. It is two full days before Britain responds.Germans posing in Polish uniformsPolish/German territories.
1939 09 SEP 03rdBritain declares War on Germany but despite Anglo-Polish Agreement does nothing to prevent German advance and invasion of Poland. By the end of September Poland is crushed.Britain Germany France and PolandPoland
1939 09 SEP 17thSoviet Russian joined attack against Poland. Britain and France do not respond and decalre war on the Russian Soviets.Russia and GermanyPoland
1939 WINTERFrench strategy was focused on defending the Maginot Line along its frontier border with Germany and Britain on the support of France wits initial small and ill-equipped British Expeditionary Force deployed. German manpower nd forces were not much larger than Britains and France's combined but the Germans were superior in air power at this point and had a small technological lead and valuable experience from operations in Spain Austria Czechoslovakia and Poland.France Britain GermanyFrench border with Germany Maignot Line
1940 04 APRDenmark and Norway occupied by Hitler and Germany. Aim to delay Britain and France from marshalling their forces in effective response.Denmark, Norway, GermanyDenmark ad Norway
1940 05 MAY 08thDisasterous attempt to defend DENMARK leads to British Prime Minister CHAMBERLAIN resigning replaced by CHURCHILL and Coalition Government.Denmark and BritainDENMARK
1940 05 MAY 10thGermany invaded the Netherlands. (Holland) powerless to maintain resistance Netherlands surrenders in just 4 days.Germans, DutchNetherlands
1940 05 MAY 28thBelgian resistance finally gives way and surrenders to Germany. Anglo-French forces on route to engage Germans are cut off from north by German attack from the Ardennes Forest north of the Maginot Line which reached the English Channel. Allied forces were forced back to Dunkirk. Belgians, GermansBelgium
1940 06 JUN 04thDUNKIRK 338k troops survived the German onslaught and were evacuated by the British civilian and naval rescue force.British and German forcesDunkirk France
1940 06 JUNFrench forces split by Germans and Paris falls to German occupation.German and French forcesParis France
1940 06 JUN 10thItaly declares war on France and BritainFrance Italy and BritainItaly and Europe
1940 06 JUN 22ndFrance surrenders signing armistice with Germany accepting German occupation of Northern France and appointing a puppet regime at Vichy that would become know as the Vichy.France GermanyNorthern and Vichy France
1940 07 JULBritish sink French Navy at Mers-El-Kebir to prevent it falling into Geman handsBritish forcesMers-El-Kebir
1941 06 JUNBritish overan French troops in Syria and Lebanon to prevent German occupation as effective opposition had ceased in Jun 1940 with the exception of the French Resistance and Partisans,British and French forcesMiddle East Syria and Lebanon. see Middle East Map,
1944 06 Jun 06D DAY Allied Forces Normandy LandingsAmericans British Canadians and AlliesNormandy France
1945 05 May 08VE DAY Victory in Europe 8th May 1945Allied Forces and peoples of EuropeEurope London and throughout.
Use with our map of European history and its connections to British History.
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