13th century 1200-1299 CE

The 13th Century begins with the proclamation of a new crusade

Out of the Mongolian Steppes rose a new leader, Genghis Khan. In England, King John continues to divide and rule his country, his conflict with both the church and the barons leading to the writing of the Magna Carta.

  • Medieval Leprosy
  • English Medieval Pilgrimage
  • Cult of the Virgin Mary
  • The Cult of Chivalry
  • The Mercers' Company
  • Medieval Music in Britain
  • King John vs the Church
  • Who Was Simon de Montfort?
  • Edward II King of England
  • Edward I King of England
  • Battle of of Lewes 1264
  • Law of the Land Magna Carta
  • Fontevraud Abbey and The Plantagenets
  • Magna Carta Translation 1225
  • King John's Will
  • Isabella of Gloucester The First Wife of King John
  • People of Northern England Database
  • Resources for Research Pipe rolls of the Exchequor

Fibonacci wrote the Book of Calculation and introduced the Hindu numbering system 0 – 9 to Europe.  Universities continued to be established, Cambridge University was founded by scholars relocating from Oxford. These great universities rose out of the 13th century and in Europe universities such as those in Bologna drew in scholars whose work would spread throughout the west.

The 13th Century brought us the Papal Inquisition.

The point of the inquisition, to expunge all heretics from society. The Fourth Lateran Council met in Rome to enact legislation as to what is heresy and what is not. There was a growing antipathy towards the Jews and amongst other things, the Council decided that Jews would wear a yellow label. In the French city of  Avignon there were concerns about cleanliness. These concerns  led to the edict that Jews and whores would be forbidden from touching bread or fruit in the market place.

Jews in Britain in the 13th century

In England, Jews were considered instruments of the king’s oppressions. Jewish communities were attacked and many inhabitants killed. The King of England had been borrowing money from Jews but then he switched to Italian bankers, reducing his dependence on Jews. Jews were restricted from holding land and Jewish children from inheriting their parents’ money. On death, Jewish money would be confiscated by the royal government. By the end of the 13th Century life for Jews in Britain was becoming increasingly uncertain and difficult. Jewish communities were attacked and many inhabitants killed. The persecution continued, until by the end of the 13th Century when King Edward I expelled all the Jews from England.

As the 13th century progresses there is a growing weariness and lack of support for the crusades.

Early in the 13th Century, thousands of children, along with a few adults and clerics, headed for Jerusalem to rescue the Holy Land from Muslims. They were deficient in money and organization but believed that as children, they were favored by God and could work miracles that adults could not. The children’s crusade ended in disaster. Many children died or were sold into slavery.

Amongst the general population there was a growing weariness and lack of support for the crusades. It was time to focus on national politics and the things that concerned the people at home.

In the 13th century, the explorer, Marco Polo traveled to China and wrote about his journey through Mongolia at the height of it’s empire.

The Genoans and Venetians each built bigger and better galleys, capable of carrying more cargo than ever before and of dominating the European sea lanes.

As the century tipped towards it’s end, the English and the Scottish were in conflict with one another, the Stone of Destiny was brought to England and the Scottish Nationalist, William Wallace, led a revolt against English dominance but was defeated at Falkirk.

Coal and iron production became very important industries in Europe and huge tracts of forest were cut down. Coal was mined for the first time in England.

A timeline of the 13th century of British History will follow shortly

Our 13th century chronology and timelines are being created and curated but already via each century page you can quickly locate our collections for each 100 years of history. These evolve as we explore topical themes, but if you are looking for something you can’t see here then please feel free to contact us and request, Thanks for taking a look.

 

Medieval Leprosy

Medieval Leprosy

Medieval leprosy was a complicated part of Medieval society. The idea of the leper as being a carrier of disease is too simplistic. The leper was a person who carried the outward mark of sin, whose purgatory on Earth would be rewarded in heaven.

English Medieval Pilgrimage

English Medieval Pilgrimage

The English Medieval pilgrimage holds up a mirror to what life was really like in Britain during these fraught and terrifying times. Who undertook these journeys and why?

Cult of the Virgin Mary

Cult of the Virgin Mary

The Cult of the Virgin Mary is seen by many as having it’s origins in the Medieval period but the mythologizing of Mary began with Pope Gregory I. It grew as the Crusaders returned to the west and shrines and icons to the Virgin Mary appeared in churches, on the wayside and in people’s homes.

The Cult of Chivalry

The Cult of Chivalry

The cult of chivalry was born out of the military culture that existed in the 11th century Chivalry was a code of honour for military warriors to follow. These men came from part of the elite ‘aristocratic’ society that existed at the time. Quite literally, the word chivalry came from the French word ‘chevalerie’ meaning…

The Mercers’ Company

The Mercers’ Company

This entry is part 1 of 7 in the series Livery Companies

This entry is part 1 of 7 in the series Livery CompaniesThe Mercers’ Company is one of the top twelve Livery Companies in the City of London In fact many would say it holds first place in the ranks of the Livery Companies and given the illustrious names on its roll of members, it’s charitable…

Secrets of Great British Castles

Secrets of Great British Castles

This entry is part 1 of 1 in the series Great castles and Fortresses

Great British Castles kicks-off in Episode 1 narrated and presented by Dan Jones, there are some intriguing connections to explore but see the flyover video and you will see the series looks set to provide some insights to some impressive historic fortresses. Catch our links to Dover and its historical context but whatever you do don’t miss the series.

Medieval Music in Britain

Medieval Music in Britain

This entry is part 1 of 2 in the series Intriguing Resources

Directly access this expert published work online for an authoritative view of the history of Medieval Music.This is by Frank Harrison a 19th cetury Senior Lecturer in Music at Oxford University. If you have discovered or would like to explore the wonders of British Medieval Music, Sacred Music or Polyphony then this is a great starting point. Click to access directly from here…an intriguing resource free to access and use online or to download.

Crossbones Graveyard

Crossbones Graveyard

This entry is part 3 of 8 in the series Intriguing London

Crossbones graveyard in Southwark is adorned with colourful ribbons, a tribute to those Winchester Geese and others who exist on the margins of society. This burial ground has been in existence since Medieval times.

King John vs the Church

King John vs the Church

This entry is part 4 of 5 in the series Magna Carta

King John vs the church, is this what was behind King Johns road towards Magna Carta? Was this a King who did not fear God and a country little bothered by it’s isolation from Rome?

Who Was Simon de Montfort?

Who Was Simon de Montfort?

Who was Simon de Montfort? He was a man who wore many labels during his colourful life He was, in no particular order; The Earl of Leicester Brother in law to King Henry III of England Son of Simon de Montfort, a crusader Grandson of Amicie de Leicester, eldest daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl…