14th Century 1300-1399 CE

The start of the 14th Century brings a seismic shift in power in the church in Europe

  • Medieval Leprosy
  • Cult of the Virgin Mary
  • The Cult of Chivalry
  • Katherine Swynford Mistress of John of Gaunt
  • Sir John Beauchamp
  • John Gower 14th Century Poet
  • The Goldsmiths Company
  • Medieval Music in Britain
  • Plantagenet Roll of the Royal Blood
  • Crossbones Graveyard
  • Edward II King of England
  • Hampshire ‘Feet of Fines’
  • Copyhold Tenure what does it mean?
  • Temple Church London 1185-2012
  • Statute of Labourers 1351
  • The Peasants Revolt Summer 1381
  • Statute of Cambridge 1388
  • Old Poor Law

Church power is in decline.

Concerned about kings taxing church property, Pope Boniface VIII has issued a papal decree, Unam Sanctam, to maintain Church authority over kings. King Philip IV of France fears that he will be excommunicated and sent men to seize the Pope from one of his palaces. Boniface was rescued but shaken, and he died soon afterwards.

The Crusades are at an end.

Muslims drove out “Crusaders” from the Middle East, including the Knights Templars, who arrived in France. They were a wealthy group of soldiers, and King Philip IV of France coveted their land and their possessions. He accused them of magic and heresy in order to seize their assets. Philip had the Knights Templars arrested on Friday the 13th and up to 60 are tortured and executed, a possible origin of the superstition of Friday the 13th being an unlucky day.

One of the most important writers in European literature, Dante, wrote the Divine Comedy and Florence became home to artists such as Giotto di Bondone, who would point the way to the Italian Renaissance.

The crown of England hung in the balance as King Edward II took his turn to upset the powerful barons as well as the rest of his family.

The conflict between the Scottish and the English continued. The English have been driven from Scotland by Robert the Bruce and the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northhampton recognized Scotland’s independence.

The beginning of the Hundred Years War

King Philip VI of France intervened in a dispute in Flanders over wool exports. King Edward III of England owned property in Flanders, the merchants and nobles there were unhappy with his interference in their trade affairs. King Edward retaliated by declaring himself King of France. King Philip responded by declaring Edward’s fiefs in France forfeited. This was the start of one hundred years of petty feuds and squabbles after which there was no overall resolution and yet there were huge costs to the nations supporting the antics of their royal leaders and their advisers.

The 14th Century will leave a terrible mark on humanity as the Black Death is unleashed on Europe. The consequences of the epidemic has a profound impact on society, it’s economy, it’s culture and it’s social structure.

In England, the peasants were in angry mood, they revolted against taxes that had been raised to pay for the Hundred Years’ War and against having to labour on Church lands. Th hundred years war was costing more than £170k a year to England alone, representing more than six times the normal annual royal revenues. The Peasants Revolt saw up to 100,000 men marching on London, seizing the Tower of London and murdering the Archbishop. These were times of revolution and as such placed England in a cradle that was being severely rocked by all and sundry.

Wave after wave of Black Death epidemics brought to the 14th Century the end to feudalism and the peasants wanted their demands met. This was the start of organised labour and the start of the end of the overlords.

The 14th Century, a brief chronology and timeline of British History will evolve here

Our 14th century chronology and timelines are being created and curated but already via each century page you can quickly locate our collections for each 100 years of history. These evolve as we explore topical themes, but if you are looking for something you can’t see here then please feel free to contact us and request, Thanks for taking a look.

 

Medieval Leprosy

Medieval Leprosy

Medieval leprosy was a complicated part of Medieval society. The idea of the leper as being a carrier of disease is too simplistic. The leper was a person who carried the outward mark of sin, whose purgatory on Earth would be rewarded in heaven.

Cult of the Virgin Mary

Cult of the Virgin Mary

The Cult of the Virgin Mary is seen by many as having it’s origins in the Medieval period but the mythologizing of Mary began with Pope Gregory I. It grew as the Crusaders returned to the west and shrines and icons to the Virgin Mary appeared in churches, on the wayside and in people’s homes.

The Cult of Chivalry

The Cult of Chivalry

The cult of chivalry was born out of the military culture that existed in the 11th century Chivalry was a code of honour for military warriors to follow. These men came from part of the elite ‘aristocratic’ society that existed at the time. Quite literally, the word chivalry came from the French word ‘chevalerie’ meaning…

Katherine Swynford Mistress of John of Gaunt

Katherine Swynford Mistress of John of Gaunt

This entry is part 10 of 15 in the series Intriguing Women

This entry is part 10 of 15 in the series Intriguing WomenKatherine Swynford, the love of John of Gaunts life? Katherine Swynford, another one of those intriguing medieval woman to explore, she was a daughter of  Payne Roët of Guienne in France, who was born about 1310. He was a knight and herald from Hainaut who…

Sir John Beauchamp

Sir John Beauchamp

Sir John Beauchamp of Holt was a Medieval nobleman who supported King Richard II during the 100 Years War but was accused of treason by the ‘Miserable Parliament’ of 1388 and executed.

John Gower 14th Century Poet

John Gower 14th Century Poet

This entry is part 7 of 8 in the series Intriguing London

John Gower was one of the great Medieval poets and a friend and contemporary of Geoffrey Chaucer. He was poet laureate to King Richard II and then Henry IV.

The Goldsmiths Company

The Goldsmiths Company

This entry is part 5 of 6 in the series Livery Companies

The Goldsmiths Company, founded in the 14th century, still plays an important role in society today. It maintains the Assay Office and the annual Pyx trial by which the nations currency is protected from being debased.

Medieval Music in Britain

Medieval Music in Britain

This entry is part 1 of 2 in the series Intriguing Resources

Directly access this expert published work online for an authoritative view of the history of Medieval Music.This is by Frank Harrison a 19th cetury Senior Lecturer in Music at Oxford University. If you have discovered or would like to explore the wonders of British Medieval Music, Sacred Music or Polyphony then this is a great starting point. Click to access directly from here…an intriguing resource free to access and use online or to download.

Plantagenet Roll of the Royal Blood

Plantagenet Roll of the Royal Blood

Plantagenet Roll of the Royal Blood Plantagenet Roll of the Royal Blood, 3 Ways to Check your Plantagenet Heritage Are you one of the many or one of the few? Watching and reading the media during this amazing week, it seems as if ‘the world and his wife’ were related to Richard III and the…

Crossbones Graveyard

Crossbones Graveyard

This entry is part 3 of 8 in the series Intriguing London

Crossbones graveyard in Southwark is adorned with colourful ribbons, a tribute to those Winchester Geese and others who exist on the margins of society. This burial ground has been in existence since Medieval times.