20th Century 1900-1999

The history of the 20th Century is dominated by the World Wars. Events that came before them and after them are skewed by the wars themselves. 

  • Alexandra Feodorovna
  • British Union of Fascists Riots
  • Tariff Reform League
  • The Edwardian Era
  • The Appeal of 1950's Cuba
  • Historic Gold in Old Books
  • Women's Roles in Edwardian Era
  • Bank of England History
  • Parliament Act 1911
  • Arthur James Balfour Prime Minister 1902-1905
  • Duke of Windsor Sends his Best to Winston Churchill
  • Winston Churchills Legacy a balanced perspective
  • Winston Churchill by Lord Carington Interview BBC Newsnight
  • Winston Churchill 50th Anniversary Tribute
  • Temple Church London 1185-2012
  • How the Higgs Boson Particle Was Found
  • Britain from above project great for historians
  • Queen Elizabeth II Coronation 1953

20th Century Timeline

This interactive timeline will be evolving during the early part of 2015.

DatesNameType
1900The Khaki Election in which a Conservative Unionist government were confirmed in power.Government
1901Queen Victoria Died and King Edward VII ascends the throne.Monarchy
1895-1902Conservative Government: PM is Marquess of Salisbury
Robert Gascoyne - Cecil
Government
1902Robert Cecil, Lord Salisbury, retired from politics.Government
1902Education Reform ActLaw and Society
1903Joseph Chamberlain launched his campaign for tariff reform.Government, law
1902-1905Conservative government with PM Andrew BalfourGovernment
1905-1908Liberal government with PM Sir Henry Campbell BannermanGovernment
1909Constitutional Crisis People’s Budget 1909 Lloyd George's budget was being blocked by the House of Lords dominated by the Conservatives. The Lords were blocking true democracy as an unelected body opposing the will of the 'elected' House of Commons. It would take two General Elections and the death of the King but eventually the democratic principle would be upheld in the Parliament Act. Government
1908-1915Liberal government in lead-up to war with Herbert (HH) Asquith as PMGovernment
1910King Edward VII died and George V, his eldest surviving son succeeds him. See Edwardian Period and Era 1901-1910and period and/or House of Windsor 1910 onwardsMonarchy
1914-1918WW1 World War IWar and conflict
1915-1916Lib Government of Herbert Asquith relectedGovernment
1916Ireland Home Rule and Easter Rising.War and conflict
1916-1922Liberal Government with reforming David Lloyd George as PMGovernment
1917Balfour Declaration Issued by British GovernmentGovernment and International Relations and Empire
1919Paris Peace Conference 1919 after World War 1 setup to deal with post war peace making after the armistice had been called. The end of conflict was in sime ways just the beginning o the problems that would follow and be at least a contributing factor to the cause of WW2.War and Conflict and Government
1922-1923Conservative government led by Andrew Bonar LawGovernment
1922Winston Churchill hosts 1st Cairo Conference and is working with Gertrude Bell and T E Lawrence.International Relations and Government
1923-1924Conservative government led by Stanley BaldwinGovernment
1924 Jan-NovLabour Government Ramsay MacDonaldGovernment
1924-1929Conservative Government led by Stanley BaldwinGovernment
1929-1931Labour Government led by Ramsay MacDonaldGovernment
1929-1930sGreat DepressionEconomy
1931-1935Labour Government led by Ramsay MacDonaldGovernment
1935-1937,strong>Conservative Government led Stanley Baldwin oversees the country through the Abdication Crisis and the new King George VI crowned.Government
1936King George V died, Edward VII proclaimed King but not crowned. There is an Abdication crisis as the King wishes to marry twice divorced American Mrs Simpson. His brother Duke of York becomes King. Edward VII (David) leaves country marries mistress and becomes Duke of Windsor.Monarchy
1937-1939Neville Chamberlain Prime MinisterNeville ChamberlainGovernment
1939-1940Conservative government: Neville Chamberlain 2nd brief term as Appeasement fails he resigns.Government
1940-1945Winston Churchill Government
1945 May-JulyWinston Churchill Government
1945-1951Labour Government led by Clement AttleeGovernment
1951-1955Sir Winston Churchill Government
1955-1957Conservative Government led by Sir Anthony EdenGovernment
1956Suez Crisis (Tripartite Aggression) Britain is not supported by the US which prefers a peaceful solution.War and Conflict and Government International Relations
1957-1963Conservative Government: Harold MacmillanGovernment
1963-1964Sir Alec Douglas HomeGovernment
1964-1970Labour Government Harold WilsonGovernment
1970-1974Conservative Government led by Edward Heath. Britain joins the European Economic Community. The industrial action and strife would lead to an enforced restriction on commercial organisations of no more than 3 consecutive days consumption of electricity per working week to conserve electricity, with exemptions for some essential services.
Government
1974-1976Harold WilsonGovernment
1976-1979James CallaghanGovernment
1979-1990Margaret ThatcherGovernment
1990-1997Conservative Government led by John MajorGovernment
1990-1991Gulf War leads to toppling of the Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein.War and Conflict, International Relations, Governemnt
1997-2007New Labour Government led by Tony BlairGovernment
1998Irish Problems: Good Friday AgreementWar and Conflict Government International Affairs

Empire of the last century was at its peak but how will it transform in the 20th Century?

Empire still dominates the beginning of this century but conditions for the labouring classes gets harder and harder in Europe, as countries swing between nationalism and empire.

The Boxer Rebellion is defeated and the Boer War ends. Russia and Japan squabble over Korea and Manchuria, in fact there are squabbles all over the world, a certain discontent amongst the nations as powerful leaders push hard against each other. NYT2008102420151587C

On the streets, people are demanding universal suffrage.In America and Britain workers are in dispute and strikes and unions become part of working life.

In Russia, strikes, peasant uprisings in many provinces, revolutionary movements among national minorities and rebellions in the armed forces are developing.

Queen Victoria dies and society in Britain changes as a result. The Edwardian Period begins and Edward VII ascends the throne.

Albert Einstein submits a paper in which he develops his argument for E=mc2 and the Wright brothers experiment with engine powered flight.

Electricity, automobiles and radio changes the world for everyone

Political norms are changing all over the world. Britain’s Parliament Act makes it possible for the House of Commons to pass legislation without the approval of the House of Lords, revolutionizing British politics, the centre of power moves from the elite to the people. The Irish question is tackled,  Britain’s House of Commons passes “Home Rule”, legislation designed to give a measure of self-government and dominion status to “Southern Ireland,” what will eventually become the Irish Free State.

Country upon country declare war as Germans agree to defend their ‘homeland’ at all costs

World War I grips the world and all things change irrevocably. The map of the world changes.

Saxe=Coburg to Windsor and a new Royal House is born.
Saxe=Coburg to Windsor and a new Royal House is born.

America and other nations fall into depression, Russia faces it’s greatest challenge at the hands of Lenin and Stalin. Women gain the vote in Britain and forge new employment opportunities for themselves.

Chancellor Hitler delivers his

“Proclamation to the German Nation” It begins: “More than fourteen years have passed since the unhappy day when the German people, blinded by promises from foes at home and abroad, lost touch with honor and freedom, thereby losing all.”

By 1945 we need Winston at the helm.British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in Military Dress

  • The world is once again thrown into turmoil, the war ends with a chaotic mess in it’s wake. The iron curtain rises and a new war, a Cold War emerges, in which suspicion and cynicism mark political decisions.
  • The race for space begins with the Russians and the Americans vying with each other for supremacy.
  • The Israeli Palestinian problems becomes critical. Racial tensions mount in America.
  • Music, art and literature change our culture. The swinging sixties throws life into a vortex of sexual and political revolution.
  • The Vietnam War exposes America and television allows the conflict to spill out into our homes.
  • Terrorism becomes a commonly used word in Britain as the Irish conflict brings acts of terror to British streets.
  • Supersonic flight becomes possible with the production of the Concord aircraft.
  • Problems in the Middle East threaten security around the world.
  • Women finally get to vote

Berners Lee invents the world wide web and life is never the same again

 

 

20th century collection

Alexandra Feodorovna

Alexandra Feodorovna

Alexandra Feodorovna the last Russian Tsarina was she ultimately responsible for the downfall and murder of the Romanov family? She was ostracized by the Russian court, it’s people and many in Europe, what part did this play in forcing her towards Rasputin?

British Union of Fascists Riots

British Union of Fascists Riots

The British Union of Fascists rose to power under Oswald Mosley in the 1930’s, the riots that ensued in the streets of the East End have something to teach us about the rise of far right politics in today’s political climate.

Tariff Reform League

Tariff Reform League

The Tariff Reform League was the 1903 dream of Joseph Chamberlain, he rejected free trade, what can we learn from this in the build up to Brexit? Was he misguided in his political view or did he have a point of view worth re-examining in light of the upcoming trade negotiations?

The Edwardian Era

The Edwardian Era

The Edwardian era lasted only nine years and yet it was an age of social change and political and intellectual brilliance, what happened in this ear to promote such change?

The Appeal of 1950’s Cuba

The Appeal of 1950’s Cuba

The appeal of 1950’s Cuba echos down the decades drawing tourists to the island for decades. Will it change as Cuba embraces the hand held out by the US?

Historic Gold in Old Books

Historic Gold in Old Books

This entry is part 8 of 8 in the series Intriguing London

A chance find in a charity book store, led to the unexpected discovery of a collection of books that belonged to the late Colin Sorenson. All sorts of books on London containing a few historical golden nuggets.

Women’s Roles in Edwardian Era

Women’s Roles in Edwardian Era

What were women’s roles in the Edwardian era of British history? What changes in society occurred that moved women towards acceptance in the workplace? The events after the Edwardian era would catapult women towards new opportunities.

Bank of England History

Bank of England History

This entry is part 1 of 1 in the series British Finance and Banking History

Bank of England History next to the East India Company one of our oldest institutions and ironically as the old lady of Threadneedle Street one of the few ‘last men standing. Founded by an associate of Isaac Newton from Trinity College Cambridge days maybe not such a strange connection give Newton was Master of the Royal Mint. Rothschilds to the rescue, so many intriguing connections to an institution we think of as a steadying force. It was not always so. Find out more here…

Parliament Act 1911

Parliament Act 1911

This entry is part 1 of 1 in the series Constitutional Crisis 1909-1911

The Barons finally give way to democracy and yield their right of veto against democratically approved laws voted on and approved in the House of Commons. An Act of Parliament settles a bitter dispute from the 1909 Peoples Budget and a vital principle that had taken hundreds of years to establish.

Arthur James Balfour Prime Minister 1902-1905

Arthur James Balfour Prime Minister 1902-1905

This entry is part 2 of 2 in the series British Prime Ministers

Arthur James Balfour was a Prime Minister cut from the old aristocratic mould, an intelligent man who perhaps lacked emotional intelligence to match. Educated at Eton and Cambridge, nephew of Lord Salisbury, his mother’s brother. He would serve in coalition during WWI alongside Lloyd George more than strange bed-fellows. It was then that his now infamous Balfour Declaration would be declared and continues to cited as the root cause of the troubles between the Arab and Zionist causes in Palestine. and modern Israel. Unsuccessful Prime Ministers can be even more important it would seem than those that succeed and the failures may also be greatest when they are no longer in the top job.