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12th century 1100-1199 CE

12th Century 110-1199 CE

A time of religious conflict and scholastic advances in Europe. A century of pilgrimage.

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The 12th Century brought a time of religious conflict and scholastic advances across the world. It was the great age of pilgrimage. The Crusades to the Holy Land, became an absorbing quest for many of Europes rulers. led to the formation of orders of knights, to protect and take care of the pilgrims travelling to the Holy Land. As the century unfolds the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller, become landowners and bankers.

The first European University is established in Bologna and the school of thought known as Scholasticism is born.

This develops to become the dominant philosophy of learning in Medieval Europe, an approach to learning involving discussion and debate. It goes hand in glove with the emergence of more universities and forms the basis for religious and Medieval dogma.

Death of Henry I creates a state of conflict in England during ‘The Anarchy’

On the death of King Henry I, England is thrown into a state of civil unrest as Matilda and Stephen fight for supremacy. The Anarchy has begun.

Around the world literacy levels are increasing and China produces the first hand stitched books.

King Arthur is introduced to the English, in the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth who wrote the ‘History of the Kings of Britain’. Europeans start translating Arabic texts of geometry and the science of mathematics is born, profoundly changing the course of development in Europe. The art, culture and teachings of the Islamic world begin to increase their influence European culture.

Great Cathedrals rise from the ground and an infamous murder takes place in one of them.

Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by four knights of the court of King Henry II.

By the end of the 12th Century, the Crusader army has been defeated by Saladin and the fall of Jerusalem causes Pope Gregory to call for a crusade.

Richard the Lionheart swears to liberate Jerusalem but is thwarted in his attempt.

Our 12th century chronology and timelines are being created and curated but already via each century page you can quickly locate our collections for each 100 years of history. These evolve as we explore topical themes, but if you are looking for something you can’t see here then please feel free to contact us and request.