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9th century 800-899 CE

Winston Churchill said of Alfred the Great;

'We discern across the centuries a commanding and versatile intelligence wielding with equal force the sword of war and the sword of justice'

 The 9th century gave England one of her greatest leaders, King Alfred the Great, who ascended to the throne of the Kingdom of Wessex in 871. He came from a line of powerful rulers whose rule in the Kingdom of Wessex was shadowed by the Viking raiders from the north. It was the century when the Vikings raided Ireland, sacked London and captured York.

The Vikings were not only expanding their territories, they continued to expand their art and culture and this became a unifying aspect of this period.

 

Islamic science and mathematical and literary advancements were immense. Without it, many great works would have been lost to the world including Ptolemy's work on cosmology.

The 9th century was a century of literature

The Islamic House of Wisdom with it's 400,000 books, the development of the Cyrillic script, translating the Bible into Slavic (later Cyrillic) and the oldest surviving printed book from China, the Diamond Sutra.

9th Century

The Diamond Sutra

In Britain the Anglo Saxon Chronicle was begun that today still gives us the best and sometimes only insight into the history of this dark period of British history. King Alfred encouraged scholars to read and translate great works. In his reign the scriptorium at Winchester is thought to have been established.

9th Century

Viking Chess Pieces

Search the global timeline for events from the C9th. Type  9th into the search bar to find out some intriguing events from the century.

Year EVENT TITLENARRATIVEPERIODSCENTURY
10Catuvellauni tribe tribe arrive in Southern EnglandThe Celtic tribe of the Catuvellauni emerged in the late first century BC to become one of the most powerful tribes in southern Britain. Their leader or king, was Cunobelinius. The main territory of the Catuvellauni lay on the northern bank of the Thames. The tribe's early capital was at Wheathampstead. Under Cassivellaunus they expanded outwards to dominate Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire east of the Cherwell, Middlesex and north-east Surrey.roman1st
43Romans invade from Gallia to Cantiaci East coast to English Midlands and Home Counties and South West EnglandThey were one of the most prominent Celtic tribes of their time, and also one of the richest. Roman1st
47Romans occupy WalesRomans expand and occupy WalesRoman1st
60Iceni Pagan Revolt - Boudica burns Roman Temple in EssexIceni attack Londinium (London) (Verulamium (St Albans) and Camulodunum (Colchester) is burnt some 80k killed by Iceni.Eventually revenged as revolt is surpressedRoman1st
70Romans absorbed Atrebates tribe HampshireHampshire absorbed by Romans as Atrebates between Roman named Noviomagus on East, Hengistbury on west and Calleva on Northern boundaryRoman1st
79Roman legions occupy and control ScotlandThe Romans march north to conquer Scotland but they are met with fierce opposition and their presence here would be short lived as they were forced to pull southwards.Roman1st
79 Vesuvius eruptionMarker of state of Roman Empireroman1st
122Hadrians Wall builtThe wall was named following visit of Emperor Hadrian.Roman2nd
139British Roman frontier moves north to Antoinine WallThe Antoinine wal runs from the Firth of Forth to the ClydeRoman2nd
166First Christian Church in BritainFirst evidence of Christianity in Roman Britain occurs around this time.roman2nd
208Emperor Septimus Severus campaigns drives back ScotsEmperor Severus dies from illness in York which is known as Eboracum. On his death new Emperor Caracalla terminates the warRoman3rd
213Britannia as a Roman Province is divided into 2 parts Britannia Superior and Inferior (North)Roman3rd
260Saxon Shore Forts builtThe Saxon Shore Forts were built by the Romans as the Southern coast had become the frontline for defense against potential Saxon invasions. Subsequently some of these forts, which were very well built, were also used by the Saxons and refortified after the Norman Invasion. Portchester and Pevsney Castles being prime examples.Roman3rd
300Mildenhall suffolk Treasure finds in British MuseumThe Mildenhall hoard is one of the most important collections of late-Roman silver tableware from the Roman Empire. The objects were found during ploughing near Mildenhall in Suffolk, eastern England, in 1942 and were declared Treasure Trove in 1946.roman4th
306Contantine the GreatConstantine was proclaimed Roman Emperor at York. One of the greatest Roman Emperors he made Christianity the empire's preferred religion and built the new capital of Constantinople. He probably did not revisit England after 314 due to breadth of his responsibilities. His rise to emperor from General in Britain shows the importance of the Roman's British dominions but the use of local troops and ability to influence succession contributed to the long-term disruption, causing Roman Civil war and illustrating how personal ambition could be furthered by weilding personal and empire funded power. His father was Constantius Chlorus who was a co-emperor with special responsibilities for the western Roman provinces.roman4th
313Edict of Milan Key event that puts the Church at the centre as sponsor of the artsRoman4th
325Emperor Constantine calls Council of Nicaea to form single christian docterineSingle christian docterine over whole Roman EmpireRoman4th
367Great Barbarian Conspiracy' Picts, Scots, and Saxons attack Britain.Major force of change and migrationRoman4th
368Revolt and invasion of Britain by Picts Scots and Saxons put downDefeated invaders by Count Theodosiusroman4th
383Magnus Maximus Roman General in Britain declares himself EmperorMagnus Maximus takes many legions from Britain to confront and gain control of Gaul and Spain, which he does.During his reign Romans extensively withdraw from Wales. It is debatable how much taking the legions to Gaul weakened the Roman grip on Britain and accelerated the Roman Empires collapse and withdrawal from Britain. He was not the only Roman General stationed in Britain to declare himself emporer, others included Carausius, Clodius Albinus, Constantine I and Constantine III. He was eventually defeated by the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius I.roman4th
390Emperor Theodosius imposes Christianity as sole religion in the Roman EmpireThis single act has massive repercussions for the future of Christianity with far reaching social political and cultural consequencesroman4th
395Death of Theodosius creates definitive split and weakening of the Roman Empire into East and WestDivision not only poltical but with deep cultural significanceroman4th
400Winchester becomes a Royal and ecclesiastical city, the centre of Wessex and EnglandThe first reference to the land including Weeke parish is in a Saxon Charter in 636 when King Cynegils granted to the church land within a seven mile circle of the city. The first Church had been built in Winchester. When the kingdom was united in 837 by Egbert he was crowned as the first king of England in Winchester. It remained the capital until the time of William the conqueror when William was crowned in both Winchester and London. This lead to a period of two capitals and this came to an end when London superceded Winchester as the capital in the twelfth century.Roman5th
407Constantine III was Roman Emperor 407-411 was proclaimed by the Roman Army in Britain and was the last to be so. Constantine III removed more troops to fight his rivals from Britain and effectively left the Britons to fend for themselves.Roman colonists abandoned in Britain to fight Saxonsroman5th
410Rome sacked by Visigoths under AlaricPower of Rome dwindling. This is evidenced in the abandonment of Britain and the onslaught they are facing from the Sxons and other Germanic tribes.Roman5th
410British local leaders with reduction in Roman Troops and collapse rise up and expel remaining Roman Officals from the towns.There were dwindling troop numbers to back-up the officials, they were in effect defenceless.Roman5th
410Roman Emperor Honorius proclaims that inhabitants of Britain must fend for themselves.The Emperor is under attack and fighting on all sides he probably saw this as a temporary requirement but Rome would never regain enough power or resources to restore it's supremacy in Britain.Roman5th
423c.423 - Birth of St. Patrick Some of the facts around the birth of St Patrick remain vague, including the exact year of his birth but it is believed he was born at Banna Venta Burniae, which is thought to be near Birdoswald.Anglo Saxon5th
425Vortigern usurps Roman Imperial power Vortigern was a British warlord, a leading ruler of the BritonsAnglo Saxon5th
425King Conomor flourishes in Dumnonia, His capital is probably at Castle Dore.Anglo Saxon5th
428Vortigern consolidates power in Britain Vortigern invited a number of Germanic warriors to aid him in consolidating his position in Britain. This appears to have been an early use of German mercenaries, who probably settled in the Dorchester-upon-Thames area.Anglo Saxon5th
429Germanus visits Britain to combat heresy of PelagiusPalladius, a British deacon requested and Pope Celestine I dispatched, Bishops Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes to Britain to combat the Pelagian heresy. While in Britain, Germanus, a former military man, leads the Britons in their 'Hallelujah' victory at Maes Garmom.Anglo Saxon5th
432St Patrick arrives in Ireland to begin his mission Patrick was living in Scotland and had travelled in Europe before going to Ireland. His parents were Calpurnius and Conchessa, who were Romans living in Britian in charge of the colonies.Anglo Saxon5th
441Britons defeatedThe first Saxon revolt against native Britons took place in 441 A.D. It was led by two brothers, Hengst and Horsa.Anglo Saxon5th
443Death of King Constantine Corneu of Dumnonia. His kingdom is divided between his two sons as Dumnonia and Cerniw.Anglo Saxon5th
446Saxons and Jutes arrive in HampshireThe Jutes of Hampshire may have been a breakaway part of the colony of Jutes who invaded Kent. They sailed around the coast and entered Hampshire by traveling up Southampton Water and then up the River Meon. This tribe of Jutes was called the Meonwara. Another possibility is that they were 'left over' from the' foederata', whom the Romans hired to protect the southern shores from attack.Anglo Saxon5th
449Angles Saxons and Jute invaders arrive Hengist and Horsa in KentAD 449 This year Marcian and Valentinian assumed the empire,and reigned seven winters. In their days Hengest and Horsa,invited by Wurtgern, king of the Britons to his assistance, landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; first of all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought against them. The king directed them to fight against the Picts; and they did so; and obtained the victory wheresoever they came. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
449 Vortigern invites Horsa and Hengst to meetAnd in their days Vortigern invited the Angles thither, and they came to Britain in three ceols, at the place called Wippidsfleet. BedeAnglo Saxon5th
451Adventus Saxonum - the coming of the SaxonsBede wrote about the coming of the Saxons for this year but it is quite probable that they arrived some time between AD 425 - 450Anglo Saxon5th
455Battle of Rithergabail (Aylesford) achieves no decisive outcomeA.D. 455. This year Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern the king on the spot that is called Aylesford. His brother Horsa being there slain, Hengest afterwards took to the kingdom with his son Esc. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
456Stonehenge Peace Conference called by the Saxons with British NoblesThe Anglo-Saxons call the British nobles to a peace conference at Stonehenge but turned on them and massacre almost everyone Anglo Saxon5th
457Vortigerns son Vortimer rebels against his father's pro saxon policies but is defeated at Battle ofBattle of Derguentid (Crayford). A.D. 457. This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Crayford, and there slew four thousand men.The Britons then forsook the land of Kent, and in great consternation fled to London. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
459Vortigern killed burnt to deathThere are many theories about how Vortigern met his end, if he even existed at all. His death by fire in a wooden fortress in Dyfed is one of many being promulagatedAnglo Saxon5th
460Abrosius Aurelanius takes control of Britain.Following the destructive assault of the Saxons, the survivors gathered together under the leadership of Ambrosius, who is described as a gentleman.Anglo Saxon5th
465Battle Of Lapis Tituli A.D. 465. This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, nigh Wippedfleet; and there slew twelve leaders, all Welsh. On their side a thane was there slain, whose name was Wipped. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
473The men of Kent, under Hengest, move westward, driving the Britons back.A.D. 473. This year Hengest and Esc fought with the Welsh, and took immense Booty. And the Welsh fled from the English like fire. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
476Deposition of Romulus Augustus His deposition by Odoacer traditionally marks the end of the Western Roman Empire, the fall of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Western Europe.Anglo Saxon5th
477Sussex founded as a Saxon kingdom conqueror is AelleAelle (Ella) is recorded in early sources as the first king of the South Saxons, reigning in what is now called SussexAnglo Saxon5th
477Saxon coastal holdings are gradually expanded in Sussex.The Saxon chieftain, Aelle, lands on the Sussex coast with his sons. The Britons engage him upon landing but his superior force besieges them at Caer-Anderida (Pevensey) and drives them into the Weald.Anglo Saxon5th
485Aelle fought Welsh AD 485 This year Ella fought with the Welsh nigh Mecred's-Burnsted. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
488Esc King of the Kingdom of Kent for 24 WintersAD 488 This year Esc succeeded to the kingdom; and was king of the men of Kent twenty-four winters. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
490Ella and CissaAD 490 This year Ella and Cissa besieged the city of Andred and slew all that were therein; nor was one Briten left there afterwards. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
494Jutes conquer KentThe leaders of the Jutes were two brothers,Anglo Saxon5th
495Cerdic invades HampshireAD 495 This year came two leaders into Britain, Cerdic and Cynric his son, with five ships, at a place that is called Cerdic's-ore. Bede.Anglo Saxon5th
498Saxon Advance halted following Mount BadonWoden arose all our royal kindred, and that of the Southumbrians. Bedeanglo Saxon5th
499Germanic King Cerdic and son Cynic Land on South coastThe Germanic King Cerdic and his son, Cynric, land somewhere on the south coast, probably near the Hampshire-Dorset border. Their followers establish the beginnings of the Kingdom of Wessex. Anglo Saxon5th
501Porta arrived in BritainAD 501 This year Porta and his two sons, Beda and Mela, came into Britain, with two ships, at a place called Portsmouth.They soon landed, and slew on the spot a young Briton of very high rank. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
504Gildas, British monk bornGildas, De Excidio Britanniae The Ruin of Britain account of the English invasions of the 5th and 6th centuries.Anglo Saxon6th
508King Cerdic of Wessex begins to move inland. Defeats British king, Nudd-Lludd (Natanleod), at the Battle of Netley AD 508 This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, whose name was Natanleod, and five thousand men with him. After this was the land named Netley, from him, as far as Charford. Bede.

Anglo Saxon6th
509St Benedict DiedThis year St. Benedict, the abbot, father of all the monks, (16) ascended to heaven. Bede.Anglo Saxon6th
510Battle of Llongborth (possibly Langport/Landport, Portsmouth) Where King Gaireint Llyngesoc of Dumnonia, was killed. Anglo Saxon6th
514Stuff and Whitgar fight BritonsAD 514 This year came the West-Saxons into Britain, with three ships, at the place that is called Cerdic's-ore. And Stuff and Wihtgar fought with the Britons, and put them to flight. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
519Kingdom of wessex founded by CerdicAD 519 This year Cerdic and Cynric undertook the government of the West-Saxons; the same year they fought with the Britons at a place now called Charford. From that day have reigned the children of the West Saxon kings. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
527Cerdic fought Britons at Cerdic's-leyAD 527 This year Cerdic and Cynric fought with the Britons in the place that is called Cerdic's-ley. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
530Cerdic invades Isle of WightCerdic and Cynric took the Isle of Wight and slew many men at Caribrook (Carisbrooke). In ASC , AD 530 This year Cerdic and Cynric took the isle of Wight,and slew many men in Carisbrook. Bede

Anglo Saxon6th
533Justinian Eastern Roman Emperor launches reconquest of western EmpireAttempt to reunite the roman empire and culturesAnglo Saxon6th
534Death of King Cerdic AD 534 This year died Cerdic, the first king of the West-Saxons. Cynric his son succeeded to the government, and reigned afterwards twenty-six winters. And they gave to their two nephews, Stuff and Wihtgar, the whole of the Isle of Wight. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
544Whitgar of Isle of Wight diedAD 544 This year died Wihtgar; and men buried him at Carisbrook. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
547Ruin of Britain' written by Gildas “The Ruin of Britain” written by Gildas, a British monk. Gildas surveyed the conflict between the Britons and Saxons, and recorded that a British victory in the Battle of Badon Hill, which took place in the year of his birth, led to a peace which was maintained at the time of his writing, forty four years later. anglo Saxon6th
547Bernicia founded as a Kingdom by King Ida (Northumbria from River Tees to Scottish lowlands.)Archaeolgical evidence shows that King Ida and his successors were Angles ruling over the British population. An Ida successor Ethelfirth absorbed the southerly kingdon of Deira early in the 7th century. The inclusion and exclusion would change on several occassions. ASC-AD 547 This year Ida began his reign; from whom first arose the royal kindred of the Northumbrians. Ida was the son of Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingwy, Ingwy of Angenwit, Angenwit of Alloc, Alloc of Bennoc, Bennoc of Brand, Brand of Balday, Balday of Woden. Woden of Fritholaf, Fritholaf of Frithowulf, Frithowulf of Finn, Finn of Godolph, Godolph of Geata. Ida reigned twelve years. He built Bamburgh-Castle, which was first surrounded with a hedge, and afterwards with a wall.

anglo Saxon6th
552King Ethelbert baptisedThe first of all the kings in Britain to be baptisedAnglo Saxon6th
552Cynric fights at Old Sarum, Ethelbert 1st Bretwalda baptisedAD 552 This year Cynric fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Sarum, and put them to flight. Cerdic was the father of Cynric, Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar, Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, Balday of Woden. In this year Ethelbert, the son of Ermenric, was born, who on the two and thirtieth year of his reign received the rite of baptism, the first of all the kings in Britain. Bede.Anglo Saxon6th
555Italy and south west Iberia conquered by Byzantine empirePolitically and culturally significant event as Romans continue to influence Italian culture and in particular in RomeAnglo Saxon6th
556Battle of BeranburyAD 556 This year Cynric and Ceawlin fought with the Britons at Beranbury. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
560Ethelberts Written Laws as system of Fines.The Dooms of Ethelbert a link to transcription of the actual LawsAnglo Saxon6th
560Ceawlin became King of Wessex AD 560 This year Ceawlin undertook the government of the West-Saxons; and Ella, on the death of Ida, that of the Northumbrians; each of whom reigned thirty winters. Ella was the son of Iff, Iff of Usfrey, Usfrey of Wilgis, Wilgis of Westerfalcon, Westerfalcon of Seafowl, Seafowl of Sebbald,Sebbald of Sigeat, Sigeat of Swaddy, Swaddy of Seagirt, Seagar of Waddy, Waddy of Woden, Woden of Frithowulf. This year Ethelbert came to the kingdom of the Cantuarians, and held it fifty-three winters. In his days the holy Pope Gregory sent us baptism.That was in the two and thirtieth year of his reign. And Columba, the mass-priest, came to the Picts, and converted them to the belief of Christ. They are the dwellers by the northern moors. And their king gave him the island of Hii, consisting of five hides, as they say, where Columba built a monastary. There he was abbot two and thirty winters; and there he died, when he was seventy-seven years old. The place his successors yet have. The Southern Picts were long before baptized by Bishop Ninnia, who was taught at Rome.His church or monastery is at Hwiterne, hallowed in the name of St. Martin, where he resteth with many holy men.Now, therefore, shall there be ever in Hii an abbot, and no bishop; and to him shall be subject all the bishops of the Scots; because Columba was an abbot -- no bishop. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
563St Columba founds community at Iona St Columba and his followers came here from Ireland and founded a monastery which became a pilgrimage site. The island also served as a burial ground for important and holy people from near and far. These included kings of Scotland, among them Macbeth (died 1057).Anglo Saxon6th
565Columba founded Monastery at IonaAD 565 This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots among the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a monastery in the island of Hii.Anglo Saxon6th
570Life of Mohamed the ProphetMOHAMMED (Arab. "the Praised"), the name taken at a later period by the founder of Islam. He was originally called Halabi. He was born about the year 570, A.D., at Mecca, and was the son of Abdallah, of the family of Hashini; and of Amina, of the family of ZuhraPeo Religious leaders6th
577Battle of DyrhamFirst recorded battle in Anglo Saxon period.AD 577 This year Cuthwin and Ceawlin fought with the Britons, and slew three kings, Commail, and Condida, and Farinmail, on the spot that is called Derham, and took from them three cities, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
584Ceawlin and Cutha fought the Britons ar 'Fretherne'AD 584 This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought with the Britons on the spot that is called Fretherne. There Cutha was slain. And Ceawlin took many towns, as well as immense booty and wealth. He then retreated to his own people. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
588King Ella died and Ethelric ruled after him for 5 yearsAD 588 This year died King Ella; and Ethelric reigned after him five years. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
591Saxons fought Britons at Wanborough Ceolric usurped Ceawlin and reigned for 6 yearsAD 591 This year there was a great slaughter of Britons at Wanborough; Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom, and Ceolric reigned six years. BedeAnglo Saxon6th
592Gregory becomes Pope of RomeThis year Gregory succeeded to the papacy at Rome.Anglo Saxon6th
593Ethelfrith succeeds Ceawlin as King of NorthumbriansThis year died Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and Cryda; and Ethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the Northumbrians. He was the son of Ethelric; Ethelric of Ida.anglo Saxon6th
597Augustine's Roman Missionaries arrive in England Pope Gregory I sent mission following pagan invasions of 5th and early 6th centuries they arrived in Kent where Bertha wife of King Aethelberht of Kent he was baptised and Augustine establishes church in CanteburyAnglo Saxon6th
597King Saebert of Essex converted to ChristianityEssex was dependent on Kent this may have influenced the conversionanglo Saxon6th
597Ceowulf King of West Saxons constant battles with Angles, welsh Picts or scots.597 This year began Ceolwulf to reign over the West-Saxons; and he constantly fought and conquered, either with the Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the Scots. He was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Gewis, Gewis of Wye, Wye of Frewin, Frewin of Frithgar, Frithgar of Brand, Brand of Balday, and Balday of Woden. This year came Augustine and his companions to England. Bedeanglo Saxon6th
598First Grammar school established in Canterbury This is based on the fact that St. Augustine founded an abbey (within the current school's grounds) where it is known that teaching took place. When the dissolution of the monasteries occurred in the reign of Henry VIII, the school was refounded as The King's School, Canterbury.Anglo Saxon6th
601Gregory sends the Pall to Augustine and Edwin of Northumbrians is baptised.601 This year Pope Gregory sent the pall to Archbishop Augustine in Britain, with very many learned doctors to assist him; and Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin, king of the Northumbrians, to baptism.Anglo Saxon7th
602Canterbury Cathedral Founded St Augustine founded an episcopal see in the city and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. The original Anglo Saxon building was rebuilt in the Norman periodAnglo Saxon7th
603Ethelfrith becomes King of NorthumbriaBede tells of Æthelfrith's great successes over the Britons, while also noting his paganism (the conversion of Northumbria did not begin until a decade after his death): he "ravaged the Britons more than all the great men of the EnglishAnglo Saxon7th
604Augustine consecrates 2 Bishops Mellitus and JustusMelitus was sent to preach to the East saxons and was given the Bishopric of London. Justus given the Bishopric of Rochester. Both were endowed by Ethelbert.Anglo Saxon7th
604First St Pauls Church built in LondonThe first cathedral dedicated to St Paul's is built on the site by Mellitus, Bishop of the East Saxons.anglo Saxon7th
606Pope Gregory DiedHe was the driver behind the Augustine led mission to England.anglo Saxon7th
607Ethelfrith defeated and slaughtered his Welsh Army at Chester.Augustine was said to have predicted as a prohesy that "If the Welsh will not have peace with us, they shall perish at the hands of the Saxons" 200 priests who came to pray for the Welsh army were also slaughtered.anglo Saxon7th
611Death of King Ceolwulf of Wessex Ceolwulf is succeeded by his nephew, Cynegils. King Cynegils shares power to some extent with his eldest son, Cwichelm, who may have been given Upper Wessex.anglo Saxon7th
611Cynegils became king of Wessex for 31 years.According to the Chronicle Cyngils was the son of Ceol, his father was Cutha of Cynric.anglo Saxon7th
614Cynegils and Cwichelm fought at Bampton and defeated the welshAccording to the Chronicles 2046 Welshmen were slaughtered.anglo Saxon7th
616Eadbald becomes King of KentHe was the son and successor of Ethelbert and briefly abandoned his father's support for Christiantity and may have failed to continue as overlord, like his father. He is not mentioned in list of Overlord Kings in Bedeanglo Saxon7th
617Redwalk killed Ethelfrith King of the NorthumbriansRedwald was King of the East Angles (East Anglians) and Edwin as son of Ella 'subdued all Britain except the men of Kent.'anglo Saxon7th
632Death of MuhammadDeath of Muhammad in Medina Saudi ArabiaIslam7th
633Battle of Hatfield Edwin of Northumbria killed by Cadwallon of GwneddAnglo Saxon7th
634King Oswald of Northumbria Son of Ethelfrith of Northumbria established himself as Bretwaldas as well as regional King., he was slain by Penda in 642, king of the Southumbrians. Oswald was succeeded by his brother Oswy who went on to reign for 28 years.Anglo Saxon7th
634St Wilfred born in NorthumberlandBorn to a wealthy family in Northumberland, Wilfrid was second generation Christian. Anglo Saxon7th
635Lindisfarne Monestery foundedThe monastery of Lindisfarne was founded by Irish monk Saint Aidan, who had been sent from Iona off the west coast of Scotland to Northumbria at the request of King Oswald. It became the base for Christian evangelising in the North of EnglandAnglo Saxon7th
635King Cynegils brings Christianity to Winchester The Italian missionary, Birinus, preached to the Royal court but Cynegils was not immediately convinced of the truth of Christianity. The following year, however, the regime in Northumbria changed and the new ruler, King Oswald, wished to restore relations with Wessex. He travelled south and persuaded Cynegils to accept ChristianityAnglo Saxon7th
635Beginning of Muslim expansionThe move of Arabs from the Arab Peninsula in the 630s resulted in the rapid loss of Byzantium's southern provinces. Over the next fifty years, the Muslims would launch repeated raids into Byzantine Asia Minor, threaten Constantinople, with conquest, and outright conquer the Byzantine Exarchate of AfricaAnglo Saxon7th
638Muslim Arabs capture JerusalemMuslim Arab armies capture Jerusalem from the Christian Byzantine Emperor.Islam7th
641Sutton Hoo burialThe finds included a mix of pagan and christian artefacts suggesting the period of transition to christianityAnglo Saxon7th
642Death of King Oswald of Northumbria He was killed by the pagan King Penda of Mercia showing that christianity still in transitionAnglo Saxon7th
643Cenwalh became King of West Saxons (Wessex)He ruled for 31 years and ordered the old church at Winchester to be built in the name of St Peter. Cenwalh was the son of CynegilsAnglo Saxon7th
646King Cenwalh baptised. Baptised while in exile by St BirinusAnglo Saxon7th
648King Cenwalh of wessex gave 3,000 Hides of land to Cuthred at AshdownThis large tract of land was granted to Cuthred the son of Cwichhelm of CynegilsAnglo Saxon7th
648Old Minster, Winchester foundedFirst Christian church in Winchester foundedAnglo Saxon7th
660St Wilfred shipwrecked in Sussex Wilfred was returning to England when he was shipwrecked by a storm. The ship was attacked by Saxon pirates but after fierce fighting the tide and wind changed and the ship pitched up at Sandwich KentAnglo Saxon7th
661King Cenwalh of Wessex fought at PontesburyHe was pursued as far as Ahsdown Berkshire by Wulfere son of Penda. Wulfere penetrated the Isle of Wight and transferred it's dominions to the South Saxons (Sussex) under King Ethelwald of the South Saxons who Wulfere had adopted in baptism. Eoppa the priest was then the first to bring Baptism to the Isle of Wight.Anglo Saxon7th
664Synod of Whitby The Synod of Whitby was convened at Saint Hilda's monastery at Saint Streaneschalch (Whitby) to determine the practices of the Church in England. English Church opts for Rome date of Easter and other customs Anglo Saxon7th
664Yellow fever epidemic throughout countryThis plague begun in Europe was to devastate the population of southern Britain and Northumbria and is relayed in many chronicles, including Bede.The yellow fever referred to in Anglo Saxon texts could very well have been malariaAnglo Saxon7th
669Reform of English Church begun Theodore of Tarsus as Archbishop of Cantebury restructuring of its diocesan system and in the canon laws which he established. Anglo Saxon7th
672King Cenwalh diedKing Cenwalth was one of the last Pagan Kings of Wessex who adopted Christianity and it is during his reign that Christianity spread through HampshireAnglo Saxon7th
673Synod at HertfordThe Synod of Hertford can be regarded as the beginning of the Church of England as a structural entity.Anglo Saxon7th
673St Etheldritha began Monastery at ElyThe first Christian building on the site was founded by St. Æthelthryth, daughter of the Anglo-Saxon King Anna of East Anglia. She may have acquired land at Ely from her first husband. After the end of her second marriage to Ecgfrith, a prince of Northumbria, she set up and ruled a monastery at Ely. When she died, a shrine was built there to her memory. Anglo Saxon7th
674Constantinople beseiged by ArabsThis gave unity to a Church in tension between its British, English and Roman members,Islam7th
676Æscwine of Wessex diesSource Bede: (HE, iv.12 also entioned in the Anglo Saxon Chronicles. Also known as Escwin was the son of Cenferth, son of respectively, Cuthgils,Ceowulf,Cynric and CerdicAnglo Saxon7th
676Centwine, son of Cynegils, succeeds to WessexThe Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes that Centwine was a son of Cynegils, which makes him a brother of Cenwealh. Stephen notes that Bishop Wilfrid paused at King Centwine's court in his exile, but did not stay long because Centwine's queen was the sister of the Northumbrian queen Iurminburg, and so Iurmingburg's hatred pursued him there.Anglo Saxon7th
679Battle of the TrentEcgfrith of Northumbria fights Æthelred of MerciaAnglo Saxon7th
681St Wilfred converts Meonwara tribesSt Wilfred converts the Meonwara tribes, Jutes and Saxons to Christianity and establishes churches throughout the Meon ValleyAnglo Saxon7th
682Founding of the church at WarnfordThe Church of Our Lady at Warnford established by St Wilfred and thought maybe to be his headquarters in the Meon ValleyAnglo Saxon7th
684Ecgfrith of Northumbria sends an army under Ealdorman Berhtred to IrelandBede (HE, iv.26) records this as a vicious and unprovoked attack, and sees in the curses of the Irish as they were slain the direct causes of Ecgfrith's death in battle the following year against the Picts.Anglo Saxon7th
685 Law of Hlothhere and EadricThe Law of Æthelberht is a set of legal provisions written in Old English, probably dating to the early 7th century. It originates in the kingdom of Kent, and is the first Germanic-language law code. It is also thought to be the earliest example of a document written in English, though extant only in an early 12th-century manuscript, Textus Roffensis.Anglo Saxon7th
685Cædwalla emerges as king of WessexBede mentions Cædwalla becoming king of the West Saxons after time spent in exile (HE, iv.15-16)Anglo Saxon7th
686Eadric of Kent diesFrankish annal records his death. A law code, the Law of Hlothhere and Eadric, is jointly attributed to him and his predecessor Hlothhere.Anglo Saxon7th
686Cædwalla of Wessex and Mul ravage Kent and Isle of WightHe conquered the Isle Of Wight, engaging in genocide and extinguishing the ruling dynasty there and forcing the population of the island at sword point to renounce their faith for Christianity. He gained control of Surrey and the kingdom of Kent, and in 686 he installed his brother, Mul, as king of Kent. Mul was burned in a Kentish revolt a year later, and Cædwalla returned, possibly ruling Kent directly for a period.Anglo Saxon7th
688Cædwalla of Wessex abdicates, goes to RomeCædwalla was wounded during the conquest of the Isle of Wight, and perhaps for this reason he abdicated in 688 to travel to Rome for baptism.anglo Saxon7th
689Cædwalla diedHe reached Rome in April 689, and was baptised on the Saturday before Easter, dying ten days later on 20 April 689. He was buried in St Peter's church Rome.anglo Saxon7th
689Ine becomes King of Wessex Ine was the son of Cenredanglo Saxon7th
689King Ine of Wessex gives the Kingdom it's 1st Law Code The laws dealt with land, cattle and military obligations as they apply to the common man. Ine’s laws survive only because Alfred the Great appended them to his own code of laws.The oldest surviving manuscript, is in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge which contains both Alfred’s and Ine’s law codes.Anglo Saxon7th
701Lindisfarne Gospels Written at the priory on Holy Island in North Eastern EnglandAnglo Saxon8th
716Aethelbald becomes King of Mercia Alternative spelling Ethelbald, 1st to dominate all of the kingdoms south of the Humber, little is known of his reign. He was criticised by ST Boniface for his dealings with the Church and his sexual mores or lack of them. He was eventually turned on by his own followers suggesting there were serious political division within.anglo saxon8th
721St Willibald departs for Germany St Willibald departed from nearby Hamblemouth on his mission to Germany. anglo Saxon8th
725Bede Disseminates Anno domiini Data System across EuropeBede, began the practice of counting years backward from A.D. 1. In this system, the year A.D. 1 is preceded by the year 1 B.C., without an intervening year 0. Anglo Saxon8th
731Bede's Church History Completed - Ecclesiastical HistoryThe Ecclesiastical History of England examines the religious and political history of the Anglo-Saxons from the fifth century to 731 AD. St. Bede's historical survey opens with a broad outline of Roman Britain's geography and history. St. Bede pays special attention to the disagreement between Roman and Celtic Christians, the dates and locations of significant events in the Christian calendar, and political upheaval during the 600's. St. Bede collected information from a variety of monasteries, early Church and government writings, and the oral histories of Rome and Britain. Anglo Saxon8th
735Alcuin of York bornThis famous scholar is one of our best sources of information for the later eighth century. He was educated in the cathedral school at York, and became a monk and teacher thereAnglo Saxon8th
755Sigebert King of Wessex for a year King Sigeberht of Wessex acts unjustly and is removed from power by a council of nobles, in favour of his distant kinsman, Cynewulf. Sigeberht is given control of Hampshire, probably as ealdorman; but he murders one of his own men and is driven out and eventually suffers the same fate. Anglo Saxon8th
755Cynewulf reigns as King of WessexCynewulf was made King of West Saxon territory, except the home province of Hampshire until the death of SigebertAnglo Saxon8th
757Offa becomes King of Mercia Offa seizes the Kingdom Mercia after the murder of his cousin Aethelbald. The 1st annointed coronation and minting silver pennies were some of his still visible achievements.Anglo Saxon8th
783King Offa's Dyke marks England's border with WalesThe dyke was originally 27m wide and 8m high although it's purpose is not fully understood and quite possibly it fell into disuse soon after it's completion, it does mark the boundary between Wales and England.Anglo Saxon8th
786Cynewulf murderedIn 786, Cynewulf, king of Wessex, was killed by the exiled noble Cyneheard, brother of the former King SigeberhtAnglo Saxon8th
786Beorhtric rules WessexBeorhtric's successful bid for the throne was supported by Offa, king of the Mercians against Egbert. It is not entirely clear why Offa intervened in Beorhtric's favour, though it seems likely that the opportunity to influence West Saxon politics, and thus preserve the Mercian Ascendancy, were important factors.Anglo Saxon8th
786Haroun al-Rashid acceded to the caliphate in BaghdadThe Islamic world flowered at this time both intellectually and culturally. Books were transcribed into Arabic and beautiful gold art work was producedAnglo Saxon8th
793Lindisfarne sacked by VikingsThis brutal attack on the Monastery at Lindisfarne had far reaching consequences and is considered to be the first of the Viking raids on Britain. It is written about in spectacular language in the Anglo Saxon ChronicleAnglo Saxon8th
794Iona attacked by VikingsWhen the Vikings brutally attacked the little island society in 794 AD, and set fire to the premises, the monks fled to the monastery in Kells in Ireland. Anglo Saxon8th
800Book of Kells written with exquisite decorationCreated by Celtic monks the Book of Kells is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. Anglo Saxon9th
800Charlemagne, king of the Franks, crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo IIIHeight of Frankish power in Europe. Wessex kings seeking to unite Britain under the one crown, the Wessex crown.Anglo Saxon9th
800Sundial at Corhampton Church Built into the wall of Corhampton church, is the 8 tide Saxon sundial. Each 'tide' was around 3hrs longAnglo Saxon9th
802Egbert lands at SouthamptonAfter his exile at the court of Charlemagne, Egbert returns to England landing at SouthamptonAnglo Saxon9th
802Egbert reign begins. He was the son of a Kentish noble but claimed descent from Cerdic (reigned 519-34), founder of Wessex, the kingdom of the West Saxons in southern England. and lays the foundations for Alfred to unify EnglandAnglo Saxon9th
825King Egbert defeats Beornwulf at Ellandun Wessex becomes the dominant kingdom. Following his conquest of Mercia, Egbert controls all of England south of the Humber Anglo Saxon9th
826Monks from Titchfield serve the Meon ValleySt Wilfred sent monks from the Abbey at Titchfield to convert the heathen Meonwara tribes of the Meon ValleyAnglo Saxon9th
829Egbert made Overlord of EnglandEgbert made rigorous efforts to bring the native Britons (Celts) into subjection. He overthrew the Welsh, then the Mercians and eventually the Northumbrians making himself overlord of EnglandAnglo Saxon9th
836Vikings raid inland in IrelandThe Vikings continue to penetrate further inland in IrelandAnglo Saxon9th
839Aethelwulf reign begins He consolidated the power of Wessex and re-asserted the supremacy over Mercia. An alliance was formed by marrying his daughter to the Mercian King, which was to prove of lasting value to the House of Wessex.Anglo Saxon9th
840Viking incursions onto mainland Britain grow Large organized groups set up permanent encampments on English soil. Kill kings of Northumbria and East Anglia, subjugate king of Mercia. Storm York and set up a Viking kingdom (Jorvik). Wessex stands alone as the last Anglo-Saxon kingdom in Britain.Anglo Saxon9th
847Charter for 'Hamtun' SouthamptonAethelwulf dated a charter for 'The Royal Town of Hamtun'Anglo Saxon9th
849Alfred the Great born in WantageFrom the Opening of Asser's Life of Alfred we learn "In the year of our Lord's incarnation 849, was born Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, at the royal village of Wanating, in Berkshire, wAnglo Saxon9th
850Kenneth McAlpin becomes 1st King of Scotia Kenneth MacAlpin, son of Alpin, 34th King of Dalriada, asserted himself as the first King of the Picts and ScotsAnglo Saxon9th
856Aethelwulf dies at Steyning in SussexAethelwulf died at Steyning his tombstone can be seen in the porch of Steyning church. His body was later removed to Old Minster Winchester.Anglo Saxon9th
856Aethelbald reign beginsAethalbald tried to snatch the crown from his father by plotting against him but did not succeed. Crowned after the death of his fatherAnglo Saxon9th
860Aethelbert reign beginsBecame king of Wessex on the death of his brother Aethelbald. During his reign the Danes returned and soon after his accession a Danish army landed either via the Thames or on the south coast and advanced as far as WinchesterAnglo Saxon9th
861Bishop Swithun, confidant and advisor to Alfred diesSwithun was a Saxon Bishop of Winchester in Hampshire, England Under Æthelwulf, Swithun was appointed bishop of Winchester, to which see he was consecrated by Archbishop Ceolnoth. In his new office he was known for his piety and his zeal in building new churches or restoring old ones. Anglo Saxon9th
864Diamond Sutra the earliest dated book block printed Buddhist text found in cave in Dunhuang ChinaAnglo Saxon9th
865Aethelred I reign beginsSucceeded his brother Aethelbert. Aethelred's reign was one long struggle against the DanesAnglo Saxon9th
865Major invasion by Danes Leaders are Boneless Haldfan and UbbiAnglo Saxon9th
866Vikings take York establish Kingdom Northern EnglandThe Vikings attacked York on 1 November 866 which was All Saints DayAnglo Saxon9th
869Vikings conquer East Anglia Unlike the previous raiding parties, many Viking leaders had combined their forces with the intention of conquering England, or at least taking one or more of the four main Anglo Saxon kingdoms (Northumberland in the North, Mercia in the Midlands, Wessex in the South and East Anglia in the East). King Edmund, the Anglo Saxon king of the kingdom of East Anglia, dared not fight them and bought peace, but the Vikings had bigger plans and their army marched on York.Anglo Saxon9th
870Vikings move against WessexIn six battles the English struggle to hols there own and in the last battle the king is killed. Alfred his brother takes commandAnglo Saxon9th
870Alfred defeated the Danes at the Battle of Ashdown in Berkshire. The Danes attacked Wessex, whose forces were commanded by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. At the battle of Ashdown in, Alfred routed the Viking army in a fiercely fought uphill assault.Anglo Saxon9th
871King Alfred The Great's written Law (Dooms)Written codification of Law, building on Ethelbert's LawAnglo Saxon9th
871King Alfred I crowned There is no record of Alfred's coronation, despite the claim that he was crowned at Kingston upon Thames it is from this point that Alfred commences resistance against the VikingsAnglo Saxon9th
871King Alfred begins to build a navyAlfred realizes that Wessex is going to be under severe threat from the Danes and the Norwegians and wants to be prepared for the attackAnglo Saxon9th
876Vikingsattack WessexThe Vikings launch an attack upon Alfred's Royal fortress at ChippenhamAnglo Saxon9th
878King Alfred of wessex defeats Dane Guthrum at Battle of Edington King Alfred defeats the Danes at Edington, encouraging further Anglo-Saxon resistance against Viking invasion and establishing the foundation for his transition from king of Wessex to king of the English.Anglo Saxon9th
881Anglo Saxon Chronicle begun by AlfredThe chronicle, begun by Alfred was a record of events, politics, war, society , even the weather. Probably written in the Scriptorium in WinchesterAnglo Saxon9th
881Law of Alfred Guthrum and Edward the Elder This Old English agreement between King Alfred of Wessex and Guthrum, the viking king of east Anglia, cannot be dated with certainty. It established the boundary between their kingdoms and regulated relations between the English and Danish subjects of the two kings in criminal matters and procedures and warranty.Anglo Saxon9th
881Peace of Wedmore Alfred and Guthrum agreed division of country, this was basis of danelaw. Guthrum also converted to Christianity agrees to land between Thames and Lea Rivers North, Alfred keeps South and LondonAnglo Saxon9th
896New Danish invasion defeated by King Alfred the GreatAlfred the Great fitted out the first British Fleet possibly on the River Itchen close to Southampton. Battle was given to the Danes in the waters of the Solent, and they were completely routed.Anglo Saxon9th
899King Alfred the Great diedIt is not known what King Alfred the Great died of at the age of fifty years but he had suffered from an illness for much of his life that is thought maybe to have been Chrohn's disease. His final resting place was Hyde Abbey Winchester Anglo Saxon9th
899Edward the Elder reign begins He succeeded his father Alfred the Great in 899. He reconquered southeast England and the Midlands from the Danes, uniting Wessex and Mercia with the help of his sister Aethelflaed. Edward dies at Farndon-on-Dee near Chester leading an army against the Welsh. He is buried in Winchester. Anglo Saxon9th
907Romsey Abbey foundedFounded by Edward the Elder as a house for Benedictine nunsAnglo Saxon10th
909Edward the Elder of Wessex defeats Vikings at TetenhallThe Danes sailed up the River Severn, raiding all of Mercia as far south as the Bristol Avon but were surprised by the combined forces of Mercia and Wessex. It was a decisive victory for the Englishand opened the way for the expansion of Wessex into the Danish east Mercia & East Anglia, the Northumbrian Danes effectively subdued, never to recover.Anglo Saxon10th
910Benedictine Abbey of Cluny founded Cluny, Burgundy France, would later be the place of learning and influence on Henry de Blois Norman the Conquerors grandson and an important influence on Romanesque Art and architecture.Anglo Saxon10th
910 Reconquest of Danelaw lands begins. The last great Viking army sent to ravage England is defeated by an army of Wessex and Mercia. Anglo Saxon10th
911 The Treaty Of St. Clair-sur-Epte Under the terms of the treaty, the Kingdom of Normandy was established, Rollo the Viking became the first ruler, and he converted to Christianity.Anglo Saxon10th
914King Edward the Elder begins English reconquest of Danelaw Edward the Elder recaptures Essex from the Danes Anglo Saxon10th
916 Vikings establish settlements at Dublin and Waterford in Ireland By the first decades of the tenth century opportunities for Vikings in Britain and the Europe were limited. It is not surprising that they chose to attack Ireland again. From 914 large fleets again began to attack Ireland, these Vikings came from those already settled elsewhere in Britain. Anglo Saxon10th
916Aethlfleda conquers Wales Edward's sister Aethlfleda of Mercia attacks and conquers most of WalesAnglo Saxon10th
924King Athelstan reign begins. Athelstan grandson of Alfred acceded to Wessex and Mercia Athelstan was second son to Edward the Elder. Athelstan continues the Alfred's mission to educate, govern and establish social codes for the people to live underAnglo Saxon10th
927Athelstan Established direct rule over Northumbria.This effectively created the Kingdom of EnglandAnglo Saxon10th
937Battle of Brunanburh Constantine II of Scotland, Vikings and Strathclyde Britons defeated by Athelstan of WessexAnglo Saxon10th
939Athelstan diedDeath of Athelstan leads to resurgence of the Viking Kingdom of YorkAnglo Saxon10th
939Edmund I reign beginsThe son of Edward the Elder, he succeeded his half-brother, Athelstan. He succeeded in regaining control of Mercia, which on his accession had fallen to the Norse inhabitants of Northumbria, and of the Five Boroughs, an independent confederation within the Danelaw. Anglo Saxon10th
946Eadred reign beginsKing Edred was a son of King Edward the Elder by his third marriage. He succeeded his brother, King Edmund I, in 946. Like both his elder brothers, Edred enjoyed military success over the Vikings. Anglo Saxon10th
955Eadwig reign beginsSon of Edmund I Reportedly murdered by Canute. He ran foul of the influential Bishop Dunstan early in his reign. Anglo Saxon10th
959Edgar I reign beginsSon of Edmund I. King of all England from 959. He was the younger son of Edmund I, and strove successfully to unite English and Danes as fellow subjects. Anglo Saxon10th
965Westminster Abbey foundedBenedictine monks first came to this site in the middle of the tenth century, establishing a tradition of daily worship which continues to this day.Anglo Saxon10th
966Edgar gives new charter to the New Minster at WinchesterThe closeness between church and crown at this time is shown by the importance Edgar places on refounding and establishing a charter for the New Minster Winchester.Anglo Saxon10th
971Opening of Bishop Swithun's grave Various visions are said to have led Bishop Aethelwold, to successfully transfer St Swithun's body inside the Old Minster. St. Swithun was exhumed, the bishop himself taking up the spade. His grave became a shrine.Anglo Saxon10th
972Crowning of King Edgar in Bath A new form of coronation ceremony takes place uniting the English Kingdoms ST Dunstan establishes the ideal of the servant king in the coronation service and Edgar promises to rule people justly in the first coronation oath taken by a king of all England Anglo Saxon10th
973Edgar introduces a new coinage The royal portrait becomes a regular feature on coinsAnglo Saxon10th
973King Edgar of Wessex receives submission of six kings By the submission of six kings Edgar achieves supremacy over the 6 kingdomsAnglo Saxon10th
975Edward I (The Martyr) reign beginsSon of Edgar I born in 962 and assassinated at the age of 16 yearsAnglo Saxon10th
978Edward the Martyr murdered at Corfe CastleThought to have been murdered by his own people, whilst out hunting, possibly by his step mother, he was only 16 years old and a kindly young boy. Miracles were reported at his grave. People considered him saintly, hence the martyr appendage to his name Anglo Saxon10th
978Ethelred (The Unready) reign beginsBorn 968 son of Edgar. He is just 11 years old when he takes the crownAnglo Saxon10th
980 Danes renew their raids on England The Danes attacked Chester and SouthamptonAnglo Saxon10th
986Wherwell Abbey foundedThe nunnery was founded about 986 by Ælfthryth, the widow of King Edgar. She retired there to live out her life and was buried thereAnglo Saxon10th
991Ethelred pays Danegeld to VikingsEthelred is a weak king who struggles to keep the Vikings at bay. After a major incursion at Essex, Ethelred pays them in silver 48,000 pounds to depart but the Danes are aware of this and further troubles begin. King Sveinn prepares to invadeAnglo Saxon10th
994Olaf of Norway and Swein of Denmark wintered in 'Hamtun' Southampton The shelter of the Southampton water gave the invading forces of Olaf and Swein time to gather themselves through the winter before pushing inlandAnglo Saxon10th
994The beginning of twenty years of battle with the Danish King SveinnFollowing weak leadership under Ethelred, the English capitulate to king Sveinn of Denmark. Sveinn sets up a Norse court at the new capital of Viking England, Jorvik. Aethelred flees to Normandy.Anglo Saxon10th
1000Easter Island statuesErected by the inhabitants of Easter Island, these statues are thought to represent their ancestors but may ultimately have brought the island to ecological collapseAnglo Saxon11th
1000Parish boundaries set outAt about this time administrative areas developed maybe based on the Saxon manors with their attendant church.Anglo Saxon11th
1001Danes destroy attack Bishops Waltham and Alton The Danes attacked a number of towns in Wessex and it is recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle that they met with fierce fighting at Alton and then went on to burn the town of Waltham, now Bishops WalthamAnglo Saxon11th
1002St Brice's Day MassacreAethelred orders the massacre during which many Danes living in england are put to deathAnglo Saxon11th
1007Danegeld enforcedDanegeld was the money paid to avert Viking attacksAnglo Saxon11th
1012The Danes raid KentThe Danes set fire to Canterbury Cathedral and murdered Archbishop AlphegeAnglo Saxon11th
1013Svein ForkbeardFather of Cnut, takes control of the kingdomAnglo Saxon11th
1013Aethelred flees to Normandy His son Edmund Ironside continues the Anti-Danish resistance.Anglo Saxon11th
1013Stone church built at Corhampton An important Saxon church remaining almost unaltered since it was built. The church is built on a mound within a circular enclosure, suggesting a very ancient place of pre-Christian worship. Associated with the ministry of St Wilfred.Anglo Saxon11th
1014Battle of Clontarf Army of Brian Boru and Mael Sechnaill defeats the Dublin Vikings and their allies Brian Boru was high king of the irish fighting for power amongst 11th century kings. Vikings and |Irish on both sides.Brian killed in later stages robbed of victory and Mael resumes as High King.Anglo Saxon11th
1014Aethelred recaptures the throneAfter Svein died in February 1014, Ethelred’s council of advisers invited him to return to the throne on condition that he agree to satisfy their grievances.Anglo Saxon11th
1014Cnut invades with army of 20,000There follows a year of Military War with Ethelreds effective son Edmund IronsideAnglo Saxon11th
1016Cnut establishes education for boysCnut wishes to continue the task of educating his people that was begun by Alfred. His aim was for a peaceful and prosperous kingdom.Anglo Saxon11th
1016 Edmund Ironside reign beginsAfter the death of Aethelred II, the Saxons choose Edmund Ironside to succeed. , son of Aethelred II the Unready of England, becomes KingThe Danes however choose CanuteAnglo Saxon11th
1016Canute defeats Edmund at Ashingdon EssexAt the battle of Ashingdon, in Essex, King Cnut II of Denmark defeats Edmund. They meet on the Isle of Alney in the Severn and agree to divide the kingdom into two. Cnut takes the land North of the Thames and Edmund the South. Edmund is assassinated within a few months and Canute becomes kingAnglo Saxon11th
1016King Cnut reign beginsCnut born 995, son of Swegn Forkbeard King of Denmark. Married Elfgifu of Northampton and widow Emma of Ethelred the Unready.Anglo Saxon11th
1017England Split into 4 Earldoms Cnut divided England into 4 earldoms on the Scandinavian model: Wessex he governed directly, and of his allies Thorkell the Tall became Earl of East Anglia, Erik retained Northumbria, which Cnut had already given him, and Eadric Streona became Earl of MerciaAnglo Saxon11th
1023Godwine made Earl of WessexUnder King Cnut, Godwine rapidly ascends to power and by 1023 has been made Earl of WessexAnglo Saxon11th
1027 Canute makes a pilgrimage to RomeCnut travels to Rome to demonstrate his alliance with the Church, and attends the coronation of the Pope Anglo Saxon11th
1035King Canute died Cnut dies at the age of 40, and his huge Northern European empire disintegrates.Anglo Saxon11th
1035Harold I (Harefoot) reign beginsSon of Cnut by Aelfgifu. In 1035 recognized as regent for himself and his brother Harthacanute represented in England by his mother Emma of Normandy. By 1037 recognized as KingAnglo Saxon11th
1039Gruffydd ap LLywelyn becomes King of GwneddEstablished as ruler of Powys, Lllwelyn claims the throne of North WalesAnglo Saxon11th
1040Hathacnut titular King of Denmark from 1028Acknowledged King of England from 1025-1037 with Harold I as regent. Effective King after Harold's death but continued bickering between Canutes sons is destabilizing.Anglo Saxon11th
1040Macbeth becomes King of Scots Having deposed Malcolm he is mormaer of Moray.Anglo Saxon11th
1042Edward II (The Confessor) reign beginsCanute's sons die without issue and Edward, son of Ethelred The Unready becomes king and power swings back to the Kingdom of Wessex. He married Eadgyth daughter of Godwine Earl Of WessexAnglo Saxon11th
1053Earl Godwin(e), Earl of Wessex diedDied at the King's table, which was thought to be a fitting end to his life as he was suspected of killing Alfred, the Kings brother. He choked after uttering these words 'May this crumb choke me if I killed your brother' and it didAnglo Saxon11th
1054Schism between Roman and Orthodox ChuchesHuge ramifications separating the church and focusing in europe on Roman churchAnglo Saxon11th
1056Welsh attack England The attack was led by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn with the objective to attack England and burn Hereford Cathedral Anglo Saxon11th
1062Lorcan O'Tuathail becomes 2nd Archbishop of Dublin Introduces Roman customs.Anglo Saxon11th
1063Harold Godwinson and his brother Tostig of Northumberland attack Wales. Led the English army against the Welsh in 1063. His infantry pursued the Welsh into the rocky and wooded districts. The Welsh found that their natural strongholds no longer protected them from the enemy. It is said that Harold's army killed every adult Welsh male they could find. The country was almost completely depopulated.Anglo Saxon11th
1064Earl Harold's homage to William of Normandy Harold was knighted by William at Bayeux. During the ceremony Harold took an oath that he would do his best to help William to become king when Edward the Confessor died. Harold also agreed to marry William's daughter, Eadmer. In return, William promised Harold half the realm of England.Anglo Saxon11th
1065Revolt of the Northern Earls Harolds brother Tostig is replaced as Earl of NorthumbriaAnglo Saxon11th
1066Battle of Hastings William of Normandy says that not only did Edward the Confessor name him as heir, but he also claims that Harold once promised to support him as successor to Edward. Harold denies it. William prepares to mount an invasion. Norman11th
1066King Edward died Edward dies childless, apparently recommending Harold Godwinson as successor. Anglo Saxon11th
1066Harold II reign beginsSon of Godwine Earl of Wessex reigns for 10 months and is then killed in battleAnglo Saxon11th
1066William I reign beginsCrown obtained by conquest. Son of Robert I Duke of NormandyNorman11th
1066Winchester surrenders to King William IThe submission is sent by Queen Edith, widow of King Edward. William I extends the Saxon royal palace and builds a castleNorman11th
1067English rebellionsGeneral resistance caused by the Norman invasionNorman11th
1067Norman construction of The Tower of London beginsThe site of the present Tower of London built during the Norman period and added to over time was begun soon after the Norman invasionNorman11th
1069The Harrying of the NorthThe Normans ravage the North of England. Anglo-Saxon brother and earls, Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria fought and lost the battle for the north in 1066 but the earls were in rebellion by 1069 and William attacked and laid waste to the north.Norman11th
1070Bishop Stigand last Anglo Saxon bishop of Winchester diedStigand served King Cnut as a chaplain and continued to advice his sons. Under Edward the Confessor he became England's main administrator. He was excommunicated for holding the sees of both Winchester and Canterbury. Despite growing pressure for his deposition, Stigand continued to attend the royal court and to consecrate bishops, until in 1070 he was deposed by papal legates and imprisoned at Winchester where he died.Norman11th
1075Construction of Windsor castle started by William the Conqueror. Windsor Castle became one of the major royal residences and today is the longest occupied palace in Europe.Norman11th
1077Canterbury Cathedral rebuilt St Augustine, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, arrived on the coast of Kent as a missionary to England in 597 AD. He was given a church at Canterbury by the local King, Ethelbert whose Queen, was already a Christian. By 1077, Archbishop Lanfranc had rebuilt it as a Norman church Norman11th
1079Construction of Winchester Cathedral commencesWinchester Cathedral as we know it today was begun just 13 years after the Norman invasion but it was not the first church on the site. It was built alongside Old Minster which was later demolishedNorman11th
1079New Forest created by William I as a Royal hunting Reserve. King William I and his men used the area of the New Forest as his personal deer and wild boar hunting grounds and it was thus designated as land to be used for royal privileges. It was bound over by Laws of the Forest.Norman11th
1080The city of Newcastle was foundedThe city of Newcastle Upon Tyne was founded at the lowest place the Tyne could be easily crossed. The Normans built a wooden fort to safeguard the crossing. They also erected a wooden bridge. The 'new castle' was rebuilt in stone in the 12th century.Norman11th
1086Doomsday BookThe Domesday Book is a great land survey, commissioned by William the Conqueror to assess the extent of the land and resources being owned in England at the time, and the extent of the taxes he could raise. Norman11th
1087First leprosy hospital in LondonSt James's Palace became London's first leprosy hospital, when the Bishop of London contracted the disease. Lepers were banned from the city and St James's became a hospital for lepers. Norman11th
1087William II (Rufus) reign beginsThird son of William I. Rufus briefly King killed in hunting accident by noble. He is buried below the Tower in Winchester CathedralNorman11th
1087Year of failed harvests"Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St.Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of the whole city. So also, about the same time, full nigh each head-port in all England was entirely burned. Alas! rueful and
woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many misfortunes. "
Norman11th
1088Rebellion in support of Robert Curthose, Duke of NormandyRobert son of William, recognized as heir to Normandy but suppressed by his father had the support of others to rule NormandyNorman11th
1090Construction of Southampton Castle Southampton Castle erected on a mound overlooking the western shore. It served not just as a stonghold but a royal storehouse particularly of wine.Norman11th
1090 William leads an invasion of Normandy. The invasion is an attempt to subdue his brother, Robert. Norman11th
1092First Norman Bishop of Bangor consecratedThe bishopric of Bagnor is one of the oldest in BritainNorman11th
1093Donald III (Donalbane) King of ScotsDonald was the brother of Malcolm III and following Queen Margaret's death he invaded and laid seige to Edinburgh castle. Malcolm's sons by Margaret of Wessex were exiled to England. Donald was briefly disposed by his nephew, Duncan II in 1094. However, later that year he was removed from power and imprisoned.Norman11th
1093Anselm becomes Archbishop of CanterburyWilliam II appointed the Italian Monk Anslem to be Archbishop of Canterbury, following a serious illness. He hoped the appointment would bring a divine intervention and save his life.Norman11th
1093 Malcolm III and the Scots invade EnglandPeace had broken down in 1092 and arguments over where the borders between England and Scotland once again flared up.Norman11th
1095The Council of ClaremontPope Urban preached to to an assembly of Frankish nobles and clerics about the defilement of the Holy Land by the Muslims. Christian expansion would benefit the papacy and the French nobles were full of zeal. They took the cross and so began the first crusade.Norman11th
1095William suppresses revolt in NorthumbriaRobert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumbria refused to attend the Curia Regis, a council led by the King with his senior Lords. William led an army against Robert, defeating and imprisoning him.Norman11th
1096Evidence of teaching at OxfordThere is no clear date of foundation, but teaching existed at Oxford in some form in 1096 and developed rapidly from 1167, when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris.Norman11th
1096Oxford University was by now establishedOxford University was quite probably acting as a base for scholars before the Norman Conquest but by 1096 there is evidence of scholars at Oxford. In 1188, the historian, Gerald of Wales, gave a public reading to the assembled Oxford dons. By 1201, the University was headed by a magister scolarum Oxonie, on whom the title of Chancellor was conferred in 1214, and in 1231 the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation.Norman11th
1096First Crusade embarks for the Holy LandIn 1095, Pope Urban II began to preach a crusade to regain Jerusalem. This after the defeat of the Byzantian army at Manzikert by the Muslim Turks. After the sermon at Clermont by the Pope, the knights and nobles rallied to the cause and the first crusade was begun made up of mainly french noble men.Norman11th
1097Great Council Assembly at WinchesterKing William Rufus convened an assembly at Winchester where he and Archbishop Anselm met for the last timeNorman11th
1097Archbishop Anselm exiledAnselm and King William argue and William exiled him to Rome and then seized his estates Norman11th
1098Crusaders take AntiochHaving marched from Constantinople through the Byzantine Empire the crusaders arrived in Antioch in October 1097. After an eight month long siege the crusaders finally captured the city which would become one of the six Crusader StatesNorman11th
1098King Magnus III of Norway conquers the Orkney Island, Hebrides and the Isle of Man.Magnus sought to re-establish Norwegian influence in the Irish Sea. He led a fleet to the Isle of Man and then on to Puffin Island in Wales where they fought with the Norman army, fatally wounding the Earl of Shrewsbury. After conquering the Isle of Man, he took the title King of Man.Norman11th
1098William suppresses a Welsh rebellion against the Marcher LordsWilliam empowered Marcher lords as he realized he would not be able to conquer the Welsh. Castles were built on the border.Norman11th
1099Capture of Jerusalem during 1st CrusadeStates established in Syria and PalestineNorman11th
1100William Rufus is killed by an arrowKing William Rufus went hunting with a party in the New Forest. Amongst those present were Walter Tyrell and William Rufus' younger brother Henry. During the hunt, Walter Tyrell fired an arrow at a stag. The arrow missed the animal and hit William Rufus in the chest. Norman12th
1100Henry I (Beauclerk) reign he is 4th son of William IHenry inherited the crown by accident of fate or a darker political plot, on the death of his brother William II (Rufus.)Norman12th
1100College Garden Westminster Abbey plantedBenedictine monks established what is now the oldest continuously planted garden in England. College Garden as it is now called included an infirmary garden to grow medicinal herbs for the Abbey. Norman12th
1100Henry issues a Charter of LibertiesThe Church and the barons distrust Henry,they tell Henry that if he wants the crown, he has to guarantee he will protect their liberties and so the Charter of Liberties is established.
The charter includes, ending the plunder of the church and affirming that the church is free, ending the King's unlimited financial demands on his barons; and restoring the law of King Edward with all its rights and liberties. They also demand that the King himself must obey the law of the land and this promise changes the course of history.
Norman12th
1101Duke Robert of Normandy invadesDuke Robert of Normandy lands at Portsmouth in July 1101 intent on seizing the crown from Henry.Norman12th
1102Slavery of Britons ends King Henry and Anselm meet in London on the small island of Thorney, where the abbey of Edward the Confessor stands. At the Council of Westminster the British clergy condemn slavery as contrary to Christ's teaching and declare, "Let no one hereafter presume to engage in that nefarious trade in which hitherto in England men were usually sold like brute animals."Norman12th
1102Henry I introduces the measurement the yardHenry I introduces a measure of length equal to the length of his arm and calls it the yardNorman12th
1106Battle of TinchebrayHenry's older brother invades England to seize the throne, and is joined by many Norman nobles, but Henry's English subjects support him, and win a decisive victory on Norman soil at Tenchebray.Norman12th
1106Introduction of Judges circuits Following his victory at Tinchebray, Henry makes many English his sheriffs and judges. He creates a royal court representing all his vassals. Members of his court of justice and court of exchequer resolve payment disputes by making a circuit of the shires to hear disputes. This is the beginning of judges' circuits.Norman12th
1110Chapel added to Windsor CastleHenry III founded a chapel dedicated to St Edward the Confessor in the lower ward at Windsor. It was served by four priests and connected to an adjacent palace complex by a cloister.Norman12th
1113Knights of St JohnThe Knights of St John of Jerusalem become an established order under papal protectionNorman12th
1120Knights Templar Order foundedThe Knights Templar were set up as a charitable military order whose mission was to protect the crusaders in their relgious wars and to further their cause through social, political and economic development.Norman12th
1120 Henry I's son and heir, William, is drowned Henry's son and heir, William, is drowned at sea when returning from Normandy in The White Ship which strikes a rock and sinks. Henry’s daughter, Matilda, becomes heir. Norman12th
1123St Bartholemew's Hospital foundedFounded by Rahere, a favourite courtier of Henry I following a vision he had when in Rome suffering from malariaNorman12th
1124Priory St Denis Southampton foundedThe Augustine priory of St. Denis was founded by Henry I.The foundation charter, directed to Bishop Gifford, William de Ponte Arche, the sheriff, and the burgesses of Southampton, granted to God and the church of St. Denis and the canons serving God there, for the health of his soul and of the souls of his father and mother, Maud his wife and William his son, a parcel of land between Portswood and the Itchen,Norman12th
1126Adelard translates Astronomical Tables Adelard of Bath, English scholar, translates astronomical Tables by Al-Khowarizmi from the Arabic at this time he also translates the Liber ysagogarum alchorismi a work about arithmeticNorman12th
1126Militarization of the Hospital of St JohnThe Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem had existed in Jerusalem before the first crusade, but purely as a hospital which cared for pilgrims the Hospital was employing mercenaries to protect pilgrims from bandits, it then took on the defence of part of the frontier against the Muslims. Norman12th
1128Matilda marries Count of AnjouMatilda, Henry's only surviving legitimate child, marries Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou. Norman12th
1129The first Gothic church with flying buttresses constructedAbbey Suger starts construction on the abbey church of St Dennis, the first Gothic church with flying buttressesNorman12th
1129Henry de Blois Bishopric of Winchester by Henry IHe would hold both post for 40 years. he was a key figure in the period , the richest prelate in England and part responsible for his brother stephen becoming King after Henry I. Norman12th
1130Henry de Blois built Wolvesey Castle WinchesterWolvesey Castle, or Old Wolvesey Palace as it is sometimes known, has been the site of the Palace of the Bishops of Winchester since Saxon times. The present building is largely Norman in date, but the old Saxon buildings were excavated some years ago. The Norman castle was built around 1110, it was greatly expanded, beautified and fortified by Henry de Blois, Bishop of Winchester during the Civil Military War of King Stephen's reign.Norman12th
1131Charter of Freedom granted to citizens of London and their heirsHenry I recognizes the rights of the citizens of London to appoint their own sheriffs and judges, to limit their taxes, to arrange their own lands, pledges, and debts, to transport their goods free of tolls; and to be free of having soldiers billeted on them.Norman12th
1135Death King Henry I Henry I dies in Rouen, France, as a result of food poisoningNorman12th
1135Stephen I's Reign BeginsHe married Matilda daughter of Eustace, count of Boulogne in 1141. held captives by adherents of Matilda daughter of Henry I, who contested the crown until 1153.Norman12th
1135Bishops Waltham Palace built by Henry des Blois Home of Bishops of Winchester opulent built by Henry to exceed the opulence of Bishop of Canterbury. a seat of power.Norman12th
1136 The Earl of Norfolk leads the first rebellion against StephenThe Earl of Norfolk leads the first rebellion against Stephen starting civil war known as 'The Anarchy'. Norman12th
1138 Robert, Earl of Gloucester deserts Stephen Robert, Earl of Gloucester, an illegitimate son of Henry I, deserts Stephen and pledges allegiance to Matilda.Norman12th
1138The English defeat the Scots at Cowton MoorOn 22 August 1138 the English armies defeated the Scottish at nearby Cowton Moor in the Battle of the Standard. The Scottish army were led by King David I of ScotlandNorman12th
1139 Matilda leaves France and lands in England. The Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, landed at Portsmouth with a small force of Knights to assert her rights to the Crown.Norman12th
1141Empress Matilda fortifies Wherwell Abbey Empress Matilda's forces fortified the abbey, but they were defeated by King Stephen's troops. Matilda's men fled into the abbey, which was then fired by Stephen's troops. Norman12th
1141 Stephen taken prisoner at the Battle of Lincoln Matilda’s forces take Stephen prisoner at the Battle of Lincoln, and Matilda is proclaimed queen. Norman12th
1141Empress Matilda rules for seven monthsMatilda takes control over England whilst Stephen is imprisoned, although she is never crowned and is shorlty overthrown again when Stephen regains his freedom. Norman12th
1144Gothic StyleIntroduced in France in the building of the abbey church of St Denis near ParisNorman12th
1145The Second CrusadeThe Second Crusade was the second crusade summoned by the Pope to defeat the Muslims who were still threatening to retake the Holy Lands. Norman12th
1147Henry Plantagenet invades England Matilda's son Henry Plantagenet (later Henry II) invades England but runs out of money. Stephen pays for Henry's return to Normandy Norman12th
1150The Tournai Font given to East Meon church by Henry de BloisThere are only 4 Tournai Fonts in the country, one of the others being at Winchester Cathedral. This richly carved black marble font was brought to East Meon from Belgium by Henry de BloisNorman12th
1151 Henry II Plantagenet, succeeds as Count of Anjou. Matilda dies and her son, Henry Plantagenet, succeeds his father as Count of Anjou. Norman12th
1153 Henry and Stephen agree terms for ending the civil war.Henry II and Stephen agree terms for ending the civil war. Under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster, Stephen is to remain King for life, but thereafter the throne passes to Henry. Norman12th
1154Death of StephenOn 25th October of a possible heart attackNorman12th
1154Henry II reign beginsSon of Matilda and Geoffrey Count of Anjou. Married Eleanor of Acquitaine and Murdered Thomas a BeckettPlantagenets12th
1160The Winchester Bible Illumnated Bible is createdThe Winchester Bible is the largest and finest of all surviving 12th-century English bibles. A single scribe wrote out its text in Latin, while artists worked its exquisitely illuminated capital letters. Probably commissioned by Henry de Blois, the work carried out in the Cathedral scriptoriumPlantagenets12th
1160St Mary the Virgin church, Knights Templar church Fordingbridge builtThe church has a C13th chapel that belonged to the Knights Templar and a sword sharpening stone Plantagenets12th
1162Archbishop Thomas BecketThomas Becket, Lord Chancellor to Henry II, is forced by the king to accept the vacant post of archbishop of CanterburyPlantagenets12th
1163Assize of Clarendon Henry II establishes the Grand Jury, and invites 12 men from each hundred and four men from each township to testify under oath about the facts of criminal acts to his travelling circuit justices. Plantagenets12th
1164Thomas Beckett forced into exileThomas Beckett found guity of violating Constitutions of Clarendon by Henry II forced into exilePlantagenets12th
1166Assize of ClarendonThe whole of England was divided into circuits. Judges visited each circuit, assessing taxes, inspecting the work of sheriffs and making sure the King's rights were being upheld.Plantagenets12th
1169Henry II conquest by England of IrelandThere were numerous incursions into Ireland by the Normans, sometimes by invitation other times not. In 1169 King Henry landed with a large army in Ireland to establish control over both the Anglo-Normans and the Irish. The Norman lords handed their conquered territory to Henry. Plantagenets12th
1170Murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket The complicated relationship between the state and the church resulted in the murder of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the greatest humiliation of an English monarchPlantagenets12th
1174Henry II embarks at Portsmouth Henry II. embarked at Portsmouth, taking with him to Normandy as a prisoner, William the Lion, King of Scotland.Plantagenets12th
1175Treaty of WindsorA treaty signed by Henry II and Rory O'Connor allowing O'Connor control of the areas of Ireland other than Leinster, Meath, Waterford and Dublin which were controlled by the English King. Plantagenets12th
1175Henry II returns to England from France Henry II. returned from Normandy with his victorious army and landed at Portsmouth.Plantagenets12th
1177Army assembles at Portsmouth and SouthamptonThe greater part of the shipping of England and Normandy was assembled at Portsmouth and Southampton to transport an army to Barfleur. The military expedition was however stood downPlantagenets12th
1182Henry II writes his will at PortsmouthHenry II., prior to his departure for France, made his will by the sea-side at Portsmouth.Plantagenets12th
1184Statute of Forest LawThe object of the forest laws was the protection of ‘the beasts of the forest’ (red, roe, and fallow deer, and wild boar) and the trees and undergrowth which afforded them shelter. Plantagenets12th
1187The army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem annihilated by SaladinAfter 88 years of Christian rule, Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin and his armyPlantagenets12th
1188Imposition of the Saladin Tithe in EnglandThe Saladin Tithe was important not only because it was a tithe taken of rent and movables to provide funds for the Third Crusade, it also set in motionn the idea that 'movables' can be taxed.Plantagenets12th
1189The 3rd Crusade The 3rd Crusade was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187. The three leaders were Frederick I Barbarossa, King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. The 3rd Crusade recaptured Acre, but failed to take Jerusalem.Plantagenets12th
1189Richard I lands in PortsmouthOn the death of his father, Henry II, Richard hastened home and landed at Portsmouth on 12th Aug Plantagenets12th
1189Richard I reign beginsRichard known as the Couer de LionPlantagenets12th
1189Anti Jewish attacks take place throughout the countryA number of the principal Jews of England presented themselves to do homage to Richard I, when he was crowned at Westminster at Westminster; but there appears to have been a superstition against Jews being admitted to such a holy ceremony, and they were repulsed. The rumour spread from Westminster to the City of London that the king had ordered a massacre of the Jews and the anti-semitic found vent for their prejudices.Plantagenets12th
1199John Lackland becomes King JohnJohn 5th son of Henry II. Married Isabella daughter of William Earl of Gloucester, whom he later divorced. Then marries Isabella daughter of Aymer Count of AngoulemePlantagenets12th
1206England placed under interdict by Pope Innocent IIIPope Innocent III presses the monks of Canterbury to elect Stephen Langton Archbishop. King John refuses to allow him to enter England. The Pope and the King struggle over the selection for six years. England is placed under an interdict, which means no one can be baptised, married, or buried in church, and John is excommunicated. The money that would normally go to Rome goes to John.Plantagenets13th
1207Prince Henry was born at Winchester Castle and baptised at Winchester CathedralHenry was known as 'Henry of Winchester' and had a high regard of the castle on which he spent £10,000 on restoration and improvementsPlantagenets13th
1207Odiham Castle builtKing John paid £1000 to have the castle built at Odiham, said to be his favourite castlePlantagenets13th
1208Six and a half million pennies were counted in the Winchester Treasurey Henry centralized financial administration. Before him, financial reserves were simply kept in a strong castle, while current funds were stored in the king's own bedchamber. Henry sent three of his chamberlains to the Winchester castle, along with the current funds. One official became the treasurer, while his assistants were the chamberlains of the exchequer, maintaining better control of central finances. Plantagenets13th
1209Oxford scholars arrive in CambridgeAfter turbulent quarrels with townspeople, a number of Oxford students decamp to East Anglia where they establish Cambridge University.Plantagenets13th
1212Establishment of docks in PortsmouthKing John commanded the sheriff of Southampton “to cause our docks at Portsmouth to be enclosed by a good and strong wal. Storehouses were built against this wall. No royal ships were built yet but the King’s sailing vessels and galleys were frequently under repair with timber brought from the forest of Portchester. Skilled carpenters and shipwrights had to be recruited from the Cinque ports.Plantagenets13th
1212The Childrens CrusadeThe Children's Crusade is the name given to a disastrous Crusade by European Catholic children to expel Muslims from the Holy Land Plantagenets13th
1212Domus Dei Monastic Hospital founded in Portsmouth by Peter de Rupibus Bishop of WinchesterOne of several 'Houses of God', built along the coast of Southern England to receive and welcome Pilgrims on crusade and other pilgrimages and to care for the old and needy in the local community. It continued in it's role until the Dissolution. It became the Royal Garrison Church the oldest garrison church in the world.Plantagenets13th
12135th CrusadeThe 5th Crusade was another attempt to take back the city of Jerusalem but there was a reluctance amongst Christians because of the failures of the 3rd and 4th Crusades.Plantagenets13th
1213Future Edward III is bornEdward the future king of England was born at Windsor Castle and was known as Edward Windsor. Plantagenets13th
1216King Henry III reign beginsHe was 9 on his accession. England is ruled temporarily by two regents, Hubert de Burgh and William the Marshal His counsellors managed well after civil Military War. He married eleanor of Provence. The REFORMS of OXFORD were key in reducing the powers of the King to act in his own sole interests. The rule of a wider council. He was dethroned by Simon de Montfort.Plantagenets13th
1216Prince Louis captures Winchester Castle May 1216, watchmen on the coast of Thanet saw the sails of a French fleet. Prince Louis had arrived to claim England, encouraged by the rebel barons. King John decided to escape to Winchester. Louis entered London with little resistance and in no time headed for Winchester and John.Plantagenets13th
1216Siege of Odiham CastleThe castle was under siege from Prince Louis, when it was defended by 13 men for 15 days. When the castle finally capitulated, 3 knights, 3 esquires and 7 soldiers marched out with full honours of warPlantagenets13th
1222King Henry III, modernises the castle at Winchester and builds the Great HallThe great hall is 110feet long, 55 feet wide and 55 feet high. For a great deal of it's past it has been used as a law court.Plantagenets13th
12286th Crusade secured recovery of Jerusalem by treatyThe 6th Crusade was very important because it managed to secure Jerusalem, not so much by military means but by diplomacy.Plantagenets13th
1230Robert Grosseteste describes scientific principles for establishing knowledgeGrosseteste is inspired by the idea that the natural world can be observed and facts can be proved. From Aristotle he takes the idea of deducing universal laws from particular observations, and then predicting particulars from universal laws. Grosseteste calls this "resolution and composition".Plantagenets13th
1231Cambridge University foundedFounded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231Plantagenets13th
1244Muslim reconquest of JerusalemAfter the 6th Crusade the Christians had control of the city but not much else and it wasn't long before local tribes took back the city for their own.Plantagenets13th
1253Decimal system introduced in EnglandJohn of Halifax introduces a decimal system into EnglandPlantagenets13th
1256Portsmouth allowed to form a Merchants GuildAllowance was made for the punishment of anyone interfering with their liberties of the guild with a prohibitive fine of £10. How the governing body was composed remains obscure throughout the Middle Ages. According to the ‘Customs and Usages’, dating probably from the late 13th century, it then consisted of a mayor, a bailiff, two constables, two sergeants and 12 juratsPlantagenets13th
1258Provisions of Oxford Reforms imposed on Henry IIISimon de Montfort leads baronial revolt resulting in the issuing of the provisions of Oxford. Governing council responsible to the barons in Parliament.Plantagenets13th
1261Provisions of Westminster repeals Oxford under Henry IIISets in motion divisions between gentry and aristocracy and this leads to the Baron's WarPlantagenets13th
12642nd Barons WarCivil war between Henry III and the Barons led by Simon de Montfort. The rebellion was caused by increased financial demands made by Henry IIIPlantagenets13th
1264Battle of LewesThis battle turned the country towards Civil War.Faced with Baronial opposition over his rejection of the Provisions of Oxford, Henry III had deployed with his forces to Lewes in order to rest and reinforce his army. However Simon de Montfort, marched to intercept and in the subsequent battle defeated and captured the King.Plantagenets13th
1264Simon de Montfort summons Parliament This assembly included members of the clergy and the aristocracy, as well as representatives from the various counties and boroughs. Each county returned two knights, two burgesses were elected from each borough, and each city provided two citizens. Plantagenets13th
1264Merton College Oxford University founded Founded by Walter de Merton, sometime Chancellor of England and later Bishop of RochesterPlantagenets13th
1265Portsmouth sacked and burnt during the second Baron's Military WarThe city was on the receiving end of a serious raid by the Barons of the Cinque Ports. After scattering the defenders theY seized various ships and cargo and burned the townPlantagenets13th
1265Battle of EveshamThis battle reignited the Civil War. The captured Prince Edward escaped and Montfort's main army was attacked at Evesham. Prince Edward's army had an easy victory and Montfort's outnumbered army was slaughtered. After Simon de Montfort had been killed, his body was mutilated. His head was cut off and displayed round the country as a warning of what happened to people who rebelled against their king.Plantagenets13th
1265First representative English Parliament SummonedSimon de Monfort summons the first parliament in EnglandPlantagenets13th
1266Roger Bacon wrote Opus Maius treatise on natural sciencePope Clement issued a mandate ordering Bacon to write to him concerning the place of philosophy within theology. As a result Bacon sent the Pope his Opus Majus, which presented his views on how the philosophy of Aristotle and the new science could be incorporated into a new TheologyPlantagenets13th
12719th Crusade, led by Edward IOriginally part of the Eighth Crusade, following the death of King Louis IX of France, Edward I (then Prince Edward) sailed on to Acre. Edward managed some impressive defeats against Baibars, but ultimately the crusade failed as Edward was forced to return home. it signalled the start of the end for the Crusader states. Edward learns that he has succeeded to the throne on his way home from the Crusade Plantagenets13th
1272Edward I King reignKnown as Edward Longshanks. Married Eleanor daughter of King Ferdinand of Castille and then Margaret daughter of Phillip III of FrancePlantagenets13th
1274Edward I is crowned in Westminster Abbey Edward was on crusade when he acceded to the throne and he was eventually crowned at Westminster Plantagenets13th
1277Robert Bacon imprisoned for heresy English scientist and philosopher arguing that a more accurate experimental knowledge of nature would be of great value in confirming the Christian faith. He joined the Franciscan order in 1247. He was condemned to prison 1277 by his fellow Franciscans because of suspected novelties in his teaching.

Plantagenets13th
1280University College Oxford foundedOwes its origins to William of Durham. It began life as a small and poor College, with enough funds to support just four Fellows reading TheologyPlantagenets13th
1282Edward I invades Wales and defeats Llywelyn the Last, Prince of WalesEdward I invades Wales to subdue the rebellious Welsh people.Plantagenets13th
1282Balliol College Oxford John Balliol, was King of Scots 1292-1296. He was a wealthy man with extensive estates in England and France. About 1260, with guidance with guidance from the Bishop of Durham, he decided to carry out a substantial act of charity. This he did by renting a house in the suburbs of Oxford, and maintaining in it some poor students.
The foundation date of the College which grew from this is traditionally reckoned as 1263.
Plantagenets13th
1284Independence of the Welsh is ended by the Statute of Rhuddlan Edward I organizes his new dominion by extending the English shire system into Wales and by appointing officials to oversee the systemPlantagenets13th
1290Margaret 'Maid of Norway' died on voyage to ScotlandMargaret's death left a void in the claim to the Scottish throne and instead of civil war, Edward I was asked to arbitratePlantagenets13th
1290Jews leave WinchesterHaving been so influential and important to the commercial life in Winchester, the expulsion of it's Jewish community saw the decline of Winchester.Plantagenets13th
1290Jews expelled from EnglandKing Edward I issued an edict expelling all Jews from England. Lasting for the rest of the Middle Ages, it would be over 350 years until it was formally overturned in 1656Plantagenets13th
1291Fall of Acre signalling end of Crusader StatesThe Fall of the city of Acre to the Muslims, is considered one of the most important battles of the crusader period. Although the crusading movement continued for several more centuries, the capture of the city marked the end of further crusades Plantagenets13th
1292John Balliol nominated to become King of scotland Robert Bruce's grandfather was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during a succession dispute in 1290 - 1292. The English king, Edward I, was asked to arbitrate and chose John Balliol to be king. Both Bruce and his father refused to back Balliol and supported Edward I's invasion of Scotland in 1296 to force Balliol to abdicate. Edward then ruled Scotland as a province of England.Plantagenets13th
1295Edward I summons Model ParliamentEdward I standardized the calling of Parliament.This was to become known as the Model Parliament, because its representation of two knights from each county and two burgesses from each town became normal for almost all future Parliaments.Plantagenets13th
1295Scots allied with France march on EnglandBalliol the chosen king was constantly undermined by Edward and he determined to take EnglandPlantagenets13th
1296Conquest of ScotlandEnglish victory at DunbarPlantagenets13th
1297Battle of Stirling Bridge Scots defeat English under lead of William WallaceThe Battle of Stirling Bridge was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence. The forces of Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeated the combined English forces on the River Forth.Plantagenets13th
1301First English Prince of WalesEdward I son, Edward of Caernarvorn was made Prince of WalesPlantagenets14th
1303 Edward I of England invades ScotlandEdward I of England invades Scotland again, aiming to subjugate it.Plantagenets14th
1303Unum sanctam published restablishing Papal authority over Kings Concerned about kings taxing church property, Pope Boniface VIII has issued a papal decree, Unam Sanctam, to maintain Church authority over kings. King Philip IV of France fears that he will be excommunicated and sends men to seize Boniface from one of his palaces. Boniface is rescued but shaken, and he dies soon afterward. Plantagenets14th
1305The English statute Acre is definedThe English acre is defined as 4840 sq yardsPlantagenets14th
1306Robert the Bruce Crowned King of ScotlandRobert was born into an aristocratic Scottish family with a claim to the scottish throne. After many disputes and uprisings, Bruce proclaimed his right to the throne and on 27th March was crowned king at Scone.Plantagenets14th
1307Edward II reign beginsEdward was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England. He was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.Plantagenets14th
1308Dante begins Divine ComedyThe Divine Comedy is an epic poem written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321. It is widely considered the preeminent work of Italian literature and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literaturePlantagenets14th
1310Parliament sets up a committee of Lords Ordainers to control the KingThe Ordinances were a series of regulations imposed upon King Edward II by the peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England to restrict the power of the king.The 21 signatories of the Ordinances are referred to as the Lords Ordainers.Plantagenets14th
1310 The Knights of St. John flee the Middle EastThe Knights of St. John (a crusading order established in Jerusalem in 1113) have fled the Middle East and they conquer the island of Rhodes. Plantagenets14th
1312Knights Templar disbandedThe Knights Templar concentrated on the administration of their territories in France which constituted a threat to the crown and they were disbandedPlantagenets14th
1312Piers Gaveston is kidnapped by the King’s opponentsGaveston was favourite of Edward II and had huge influence over him. He so provoked the nobility that he was sent into exile. Upon his return his behaviour became even more offensive, and by the Ordinances of 1311 it was decided that Gaveston should be exiled again. When he did return in 1312, he was hunted down and executed by a group of magnates led by Thomas of Lancaster and Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick.Plantagenets14th
1314Mappa Mundi Hereford CathedralThe map bears the name of its author 'Richard of Haldingham.It is drawn on a single sheet of vellum. The geographical material of the map is contained within a circle measuring 52" in diameter and reflects the thinking of the medieval church with Jerusalem at the centre of the world. Superimposed on to the continents are drawings of the history of humankind and the marvels of the natural world. Plantagenets14th
1314Bannockburn Scots defeated Edward IIEdward took the battle to Scotland to try and suppress revolt amongst the Scottish barons but the Scots led by Robert Bruce defeated the English army assuring Scottish independence.Plantagenets14th
1314Famine in EuropeA widespread famine across northern europe resulted in thousands starving to death. A combination of poor harvests and bad weather was the precursor to disease Plantagenets14th
1315Edward Bruce invades IrelandEdward Bruce landed in Ulster in an attempt to bring down English rule in IrelandPlantagenets14th
1316Famine in western Europe following crop failure in the previous year 1315 A climate change has taken place, and this year in Europe rains are continuous, with people talking about the return of the flood described in Genesis. Crops are ruined and famine begins in some areas.Plantagenets14th
1326Oriel College Oxford university foundedSoon after the foundation in 1326 the ‘College of the Blessed Virgin Mary’ was given a property called ‘La Oriole’, on the site of the present Front Quadrangle, and gradually the college came to be called by that name. Oriel was the fifth college to be founded at Oxford.Plantagenets14th
1327Edward III reign beginsEldest son of Edward II and IsabellaPlantagenets14th
1329 Edward III recognizes Scotland as an independent nationThe Treaty of Edinburgh and Northampton Isabel and Mortimer agreed that they, in the name of King Edward III, renounced all pretensions to sovereignty over Scotland. Joanna, the six-year-old sister of Edward III, was promised in marriage to the four-year-old David, the son of Robert Bruce.Plantagenets14th
1330Edward III assumes government He assumed the government in 1330 from his mother, through whom in 1337 he laid claim to the French throne and thus began the Hundred Years' War. He imprisons his mother for the rest of her life.Plantagenets14th
1330Mortimer executedEdward III seizes power and arrests and executes MortimerPlantagenets14th
1330Edward, the Black Prince of Wales, is bornHe was called Edward of Woodstock after his birthplace, more recently been known as the Black Prince. An exceptional military leader, his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter, of whose Order he was one of the founders. EdMilitary Ward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of EdMilitary Ward III.Plantagenets14th
1332 Parliament is divided into two houses, Lords and Commons. Following the division of parliament into the Commons and the Lords, English becomes the court language replacing Norman French.Plantagenets14th
1337Hundred Years WarThe Hundred Years War was a term adopted in the late 19th century and applied to the Anglo-French Wars. These were re-initiated in 1337 when under pressure from Flemish Allies Edward III assumed the title King of France and despite the superior wealth and size of France neither Philip VI or John II could outwit and defeat Edward III politically or militarily. Specific battles will be listed on this table and maybe cross referenced to the overall sequence of related events.Plantagenets14th
1338French invaders burn down most of the town of PortsmouthThe French and Genoese attacked the town of Portsmouth, setting fire to it's buildings and scattering it's inhabitantsPlantagenets14th
1338French and Genoese invaders raid SouthamptonThe south coast was threatened again and again by French fleets supported by Genoese mercenaries. In 1338 they succeeded in raiding and burning the town, driving the inhabitants away.Plantagenets14th
1341The Manner of Holding Parliament writtenCommons and Lords meet separately for the first time Plantagenets14th
1341Queen's College Oxford university foundedThe “Hall of the Queen’s Scholars at Oxford” was founded by Robert de Eglesfield, a chaplain in the household of Queen Philippa, who named it in her honourPlantagenets14th
1342Edward III renounces debts to Peruzzi bankersPeruzzis with other bad debts were bankrupted and threw Florence into economic chaosPlantagenets14th
1343Geoffrey Chaucer born, best known for his 'Canterbury Tales'Chaucer considered to be the greatest medieval poet and the first to be buried at Poets Corner Westminster Abbey was aslo author, philosopher, alchemist and astronomer.Plantagenets14th
1346Edward III and The Black Prince sail from Southampton for the Battle of CrecyKing Edward III with his son, the Black Prince, against Philip VI, King of France.Plantagenets14th
1346Battle of Crecy won by Edward III against French aided by Longbow and Welsh troopsThe English army numbered some 4,000 knights and men-at-arms, 7,000 Welsh and English archers and some 5,000 Welsh and Irish spearmen. Numbers in the French army are uncertain but may have been as high as 80,000 Plantagenets14th
1347Black Death reaches Europe Estimated 45% of total population of Europe was wiped out starting with Sicilyy Constantinople Naples Genoa and MarseillePlantagenets14th
1348Creation of the Order of The GarterOn St. George's Day at Windsor Castle, the Order of the Garter was created. Plantagenets14th
1348Black Death kills quarter of population The Black Death, bubonic plague which caused the skin to turn black, kills one-third of the English population. It leaves an acute shortage of labour for agriculture and armies.Plantagenets14th
1348Black death strikes Portsmouth for the first timeConditions in Portsmouth were bad at the best of times, ports suffered early on as the disease came in from the continent on board shipsPlantagenets14th
1348Black death kills quarter of population of SouthamptonTrade in Southampton was badly hit by the disease as people fled from the areas worst affectedPlantagenets14th
1348Black death strikes Winchester killing half of it's populationEspecially badly hit were the priests, leaving no one to offer last rites to the dyingPlantagenets14th
1350Treason Act 1350 It is one of the earliest English statutes still in force, although it has been very significantly amendedPlantagenets14th
1351Statute of LabourersEdward III set up the statute that required all labourers to labour for and be bound to a master where needed at set wages and terms. Starting a process that would lead 30 years hence to the Peasants RevoltPlantagenets14th
1353Southampton appointed port for all merchandise coming from WinchesterSouthampton was appointed as the port of embarkation for all merchandise coming from the Staple at Winchester, and was already participating in the trade with the Mediterranean. Plantagenets14th
1360Edward III campaigns in France and agrees Treaty of Callais Treaty of Calais, signed between Edward III of England and John II of France. Edward agreed to give up his claim to the throne of France in exchange for the territory of Aquitaine.Plantagenets14th
1363Sumptuary Law decreeing dress and diet for non- aristocratsSumptuary laws are intended to maintain class distinctions, to repress luxury and discourage extravagance, especially among the lower classes, by means of regulations regarding ostentatious expenditure on food, dress, furniture, and ornament. Occasionally legislation of an entirely different character, such as Queen Elizabeth's political Lent to encourage the North Sea fisheries, the regulations regarding the wearing of linen in Scotland and of woollens in England, is called sumptuary; but this is really protective legislation. Plantagenets14th
1364Edward III falls ill John Gaunt returns from French wars and takes control of the government as Edward III shows signs of increasing senility. Plantagenets14th
1369100 Years War RestartsThe 100 years war was in two phases. A treaty signed on May 25, 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II (the Good) of France marked the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War. It was resumed in 1369 by Charles V of France. The Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, refused an illegal summons from the French king demanding he come to Paris, and Charles responded by declaring war. His successor, Charles VI, made peace with Richard II, son of the Black Prince, in 1389. This truce was extended many times until the war was resumed in 1415.Plantagenets14th
1376The Good ParliamentThis saw the election of the first Speaker to represent the Commons, it attacked the high taxes and criticised the King's advisers. The ageing King withdrew to Windsor for the rest of his reign, eventually dying at Sheen Palace, Surrey.Plantagenets14th
1377Richard II reign beginsSon of Edward the Black Prince and grandson of Edward III. Married Anne daughter of Emperor Charles IV and then Isabelle daughter of Charles VI of France. Plantagenets14th
1377Poll tax introducedA Poll Tax is levied, a shilling a head for the entire male populationPlantagenets14th
1379New College Oxford University foundedAfter the Black Death many priests had died and there was a great need to educate new members to the clergy. Bishop William Wykeham of Winchester established Winchester College at about the same time as establishing a new college at Oxford as 'the college of St Mary of Winchester in Oxford', it was the largest college in Oxford at that time.Plantagenets14th
1380Chaucer begins writing the 'Canterbury Tales'The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer.The tales are presented as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return.Plantagenets14th
1381Widespread disorder in this Summer in Hampshire towns and countryside. The peasants revolt spreads into some towns in Hampshire, both middle and lower classes are involvedPlantagenets14th
1381Peasants Revolt Suppressed by King Richard 1381Revolt surpressed by renaging King history, arguably the start of large-scale organised labourPlantagenets14th
1381Richard II Ends Peasants RevoltThe leader of the revolt Watt Tyler is killed by the Mayor of London at Smithfield fearing for the life of the King. Richard promises that the taxes will be repealed, but as the rebels return they are hunted and executed.Plantagenets14th
1382Bishop William of Wykeham founds Winchester CollegeAmong the main reasons for the foundation of Winchester college was the necessity to provide well educated clergy to replace those lost in the plaguePlantagenets14th
1382Lollard reform movement establishedLollardy was a late medieval reform movement The movement was based on the writings and teachings of the Oxford University theologian, John Wyclif. The movement started from Oxford and spread. Plantagenets14th
1387The Lords Appellant launches a rebellion against Richard IILed by the Earl of Oxford, Richard de Vere, the Lords Appellant undertook armed rebellion against King richard in protest of the influence of his court favourites. They defeated the king at Radcot Bridge and effectively took control over the government with Richard as a figurehead. Plantagenets14th
1388Merciless ParliamentThe Lords Appellant convicted many of King Richard's favourites of treason. The Lord Chief Justice, Sir Robert Tresilian, was executed, as were Sir Nicholas Brembre, Lord Mayor of London, John Beauchamp of Holt, Sir James Berners, and Sir John Salisbury. Others had their property confiscated or were convicted in their absence. Plantagenets14th
1388Old Poor Law FormedStatute of Cambridge was start of the Old Poor Law. Drew distinction between beggars capable of work and the old and infirm and introduced the principle and attempt to keep the poor settled in a fixed placePlantagenets14th
1397Medici bank Florence is founded.The wealthy Medici family in Italy established a financial institution that would become the largest and most respected bank in Europe during its prime.Plantagenets14th
1398 Richard (Dick) Whittington becomes Lord Mayor of LondonRichard Whittington, a wealthy merchant became Lord Mayor of LondonPlantagenets14th
1399Richard II deposed Richard, who is away fighting at Leinster in Ireland, returns, but is deposed and imprisoned in Pontefract Castle, where he dies in 1400Plantagenets14th
1399Henry IV reign beginsSon of John Gaunt who is fourth son of Edward III and Blanche, daughter of Henry Duke of LancasterHouse Of Lancaster14th
1400Owain Glyn Dwr RebellionOwain Glyn Dwr leads a Welsh rebellion against English ruleHouse Of Lancaster15th
1402King Henry IV marries Joan of NavarreHenry marries Joan of Navarre, daughter of King Charles II of Navarre, in Winchester CathedralHouse Of Lancaster15th
1413Henry V reign beginsEldset surviving son of Henry IV. Married Catherine daughter of Charles VI of FranceHouse Of Lancaster15th
1415Henry V's army set sail for France from Southampton Henry set sail for France, capturing HarfleurHouse Of Lancaster15th
1415Battle of Agincourt Henry V's victory crippled France and started a new period in the war, during which, first, Henry married the French king's daughter and, second, his son, Henry VI, was made heir to the throne of France House Of Lancaster15th
1415Southampton Plot against Henry VThis was a conspiracy against Henry V by leading nobles looking to put Edward Mortimer on the throne. They planned to murder Henry in Southampton and encourage rebellions across the countryHouse Of Lancaster15th
1416Henry V fortifies PortsmouthHenry V, aware of the strategic value of Portsmouth, commences a 6yr building programme, costing more than £1,000, involving the fortification of the entrance to the estuary with a round tower and a chain boom. Their main function was to safeguard the King’s ships, not the local inhabitants.House Of Lancaster15th
1422Henry VI reign beginsHenry was eight months old when he succeeded to the English throne, and shortly afterMilitary Wards, by the death in 1422 of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, he became titular king of France. Unlike his father, Henry was disinclined to Military Warfare, and when Joan of Arc revived French patriotism the English gradually began to lose their French possessions. By 1453 only Calais remained of his father's conquests.Son of Henry V. Married Margaret daughter of Duke of AnjouHouse Of Lancaster15th
1429 Henry VI is crowned King of England Born at Windsor Castle, Henry VI succeeded to the thrones of England and France before the age of one, when his father Henry V and his grandfather Charles VI of France died within months of each otherHouse Of Lancaster15th
1431 Henry VI of England is crowned King of France in Paris His grandfather Charles VI of France diedHouse Of Lancaster15th
1440Eton College foundedEton college founded giving free education to 70 scholars House Of Lancaster15th
1445Printing Press introduced in Europe by GutenbergJohann Gutenberg holds the distinction of being the inventor of the movable-type printing press. House Of Lancaster15th
1449Portsmouth placed under Greater Excommunication as a result of the murder of Adam Moleyns the Bishop of ChichesterBishop of Chichester, Adam Moleyns was murdered outside the Domus Dei in PortsmouthHouse Of Lancaster15th
1453Battle of Castillon This ends Hundred Years WarHouse Of Lancaster15th
1453Henry VI becomes mentally ill. Richard, Duke of York, was made Protector in 1454. The King recovered in 1455, but civil war between the Yorkist and Lancastrian factions broke out (the Wars of the Roses). House Of Lancaster15th
1455Gutenberg Bible PrintedIn 1455, Gutenberg produced what is considered to be the first book ever printed: a Latin language Bible, printed in Mainz, GermanyHouse Of Lancaster15th
1455War of the RosesMargaret of Anjou, was determined to fight, rather than negotiate a compromise, for the Lancastrian cause of her husband and son. Pitted against Henry was the Duke of York, asserting his legitimate claim to the throne descended as he was, through his mother, from Edward III's second surviving son (Henry VI was descended from Edward's third surviving son). The Wars of the Roses were therefore a struggle to decide if the succession should keep to the male line or could pass through females. House Of Lancaster15th
1458Magdalen College Oxford universitySet to be the biggest college at Oxford, it was founded by by William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord Chancellor. He wanted a College on the grandest scale, with 40 Fellows, 30 scholars and a large choir for his Chapel.House Of Lancaster15th
1460Richard Duke of York killedThe Duke of York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield House Of Lancaster15th
1461Henry VI deposed March 1461Edward, son of Richard, an able commander, defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton (out of the 120,000 men who fought, 28,000 died). London opened its gates to the Yorkist forces; Henry and his queen fled to Scotland. House of York15th
1461Edward IV reign beginsThe unpopularity of the government, especially after the loss of the English conquests in France, encouraged Richard, Duke of York, to claim the throne, and though York was killed 1460, his son Edward IV proclaimed himself king 1461.House of York15th
1465Henry VI capturedHenry was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London House of York15th
1469Warwick Kingmaker switches Allegiance to Lancastrian King Henry VIEdward fell out with Warwick, hence Warwick's switch of allegianceHouse of York15th
1470Henry VI restored to the throne and Edward IV deposedSupporters of the House of Lancaster continued to fight to restore Henry VI to the throne, Warwick's switch of allegiance helped Henry's restorationHouse of York15th
1471Battle of Tewkesbury The Battle of Tewkesbury, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Roses. The House of Lancaster were completely defeated by the House of York under their monarch, King Edward IV. The Lancastrian heir to the throne, Edward, Prince of Wales, was killed during the battle.The Lancastrian King, Henry VI, who was a prisoner in the Tower of London, died or was murdered shortly after the battle. Tewkesbury restored political stability to England until the death of Edward IV in 1483.House of York15th
1483Edward V reign beginsEdward was just twelve years old when his father Edward IV died. He was deposed just 3 months after acceding to the throne. He was never crowned and is believed to have been murdered in the Tower of London by his uncle (Richard III)House of York15th
1483Murder of Two Princes in Tower of LondonSons of Edward IV are believed to have been murdered in the Tower by their uncle RichardHouse of York15th
1485Battle of BosworthThe Battle of Bosworth was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory. His opponent, Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battleHouse of York15th
1486King Henry VII's son Arthur is baptised at Winchester CathedralArthur Prince of Wales (1486-1503), the eldest son of Henry VII, was born at Winchester on 19 Sept. 1486.House of Tudor15th
1490Leonardo da Vinci discovers capillary actionLeonardo da Vinci notes that liquids in tubes with a small diameter tend to crawl up the tubes, thus noting capillary actionHouse of Tudor15th
1492Christopher Cloumbus notices variations in his compass with changes in longitudeChristopher Columbus disvovers on his first voyage to the Americas that his magnetic compass changes the direction in which it points with longitudeHouse of Tudor15th
1492Martin Behaim makes the first globe map of the EarthMartin Behaim makes the first globe map of the Earth, omitting the about to be discovered Americas and Pacific OceanHouse of Tudor15th
1494Vagabonds & Beggars Act 1494Punitive Stocks introduced for even suspicion of vagrancyHouse of Tudor15th
1495Britains first dry dock built at PortsmouthEnglands first dry dock made the building of The Mary Rose possible.House of Tudor15th
1502Spanish ship slaves to Cuba for 1st time starts slave tradeStarts triangular Trade between Europe Africa and AmericasHouse of Tudor16th
1510Mary Rose built Mary Rose built in Portsmouth dockyardHouse of Tudor16th
1513Battle FloddenFought near the village of Branxton, in Northumberland when a Scottish army under the command of king James IV of Scotland invaded England in support of their French alliance as king Henry VIII of England was otherwised engaged on the continent. House of Tudor16th
1515Warblington Castle builtWarblington Castle was built by Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, a staunch Catholic and very influential person whose family opposed King Henry VIII marriage to Anne Boleyn and who were executed for the conspiracies they plotted against the King.House of Tudor16th
1517May Day Riots, Stepney LondonForeign Owned Property Attacked 135 Flemmings killedHouse of Tudor16th
1518Royal College of Physicians establishedThe Royal College of Physicians is established in LondonHouse of Tudor16th
1520Henry VIII met Francis I at Field of Cloth of GoldThis elaborate and extravagant meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France occurred near Calais and was to become known to history as the Field of Cloth of Gold. It was an extended meeting of two great kings. It was a political and diplomatic extravaganza. House of Tudor16th
1521Execution Duke BuckinghamEdward Stafford, third Duke of Buckingham was executed. The main seat of the Staffords was at Thornbury, in Gloucestershire and their possessions in south Hampshire consisted of Buriton, Petersfield and Corhampton.House of Tudor16th
1522Round Table in Winchester Cathedral createdThe table, which hangs on the wall of the great hall at Winchester Castle, depicts King Arthur and his knights. It was painted in the Tudor colours of green and white for the visit of Charles V of Spain in 1522Plantagenets13th
1522Henry VIII entertains Emperor Charles V in the Great Hall at Winchester. He has his own image painted on the Round TableHouse of Tudor16th
1522First book on arithmetic in EnglandCuthbert Tunstall publishes the first book on arithmetic in EnglandHouse of Tudor16th
1526Subsidy Tax ImposedWolsey imposed a Subsidy Tax to pay for the war with FranceHouse of Tudor16th
1531The building of Basing House was begunBasing House was built from 1531 as a new palace for William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, treasurer to King Edward VI, Queen Mary I and Queen Elizabeth I.House of Tudor16th
1531Concerning Punishment of Beggars & VagabondsTreatment of the idle worsened and Beggards had to be licensed, the first form of means testing?House of Tudor16th
1531Southampton was in financial ruinThe corporation of Southampton was nearly bankrupt chiefly because of the absence of foreign tradeHouse of Tudor16th
1534Act of Supremacy passedHenry VIII declared head of the Church in England causing a break with RomeHouse of Tudor16th
1536Punishment of Sturdy Vagabonds & BeggarsStatute enacted in same year as dissolution of monasteries begins part of the Old Poor LawHouse of Tudor16th
1536Beggars Act This was a brutal and uncaring law which stated that those caught outside of their parish without work would be punished by being whipped through the streetsHouse of Tudor16th
1538Ordered that every incumbent of each church will keep registers of births, marriages and deathsThomas Cromwell orders that all births, marriages and deaths should be recorded by each incumbent. Some of the new registers are bound in the bindings of the old Latin missal and liturgical books that had been destroyed in the ReformationHouse of Tudor16th
1538Royal commissioners destroy St Swithun's shrine, Winchester CathedralThe commissioners Wriothesley, Pollard and Williams and the Mayor of Winchester destroyed the shrine of St Swithun but they had to do it in the middle of the night as they feared the ctizens of Winchester would react violently at such desecration.House of Tudor16th
1544Thomas Wriothesley becomes first Earl of SouthamptonHe was a politician of the Tudor period born in London to William Wrythe and Agnes Drayton. was a politician of the Tudor period born in London to William Wrythe and Agnes Drayton.
Entering the service of Thomas Cromwell and Cardinal Thomas Wolsey at an early age, Wriothesley soon made himself very useful to his masters, and he was richly rewarded when the monasteries were dissolved, obtaining extensive lands between Southampton and Winchester.
House of Tudor16th
1545Chantry Act passed The Act stated that all chantries and their properties would belong to the King for as long as he should live. Along with the dispersal of the monasteries, the act was designed to help Henry relieve the monetary pressures of the war with France. House of Tudor16th
1545The Mary Rose sinks in the SolentKing Henry VIII looks on from Southsea Castle as his flagship the Mary Rose sinks in front of him.House of Tudor16th
1547Repeal of the Chantry Act Edward VI, had a new Act issued in 1547, which completely suppressed most chantries and guilds it also authorized inquiries to determine all of their possessions. Although the act called for the monies to go to "charitable" ends and the "public good," most of it appeared to have gone to Edward VI's advisors. House of Tudor16th
1547Punishment of Vagabonds & relief of the Poor and impotent Persons StatuteHenry VIII just dead, Edward King in name only futher draconian law from behind the figurhead?House of Tudor16th
1550Punishment of Vagabonds and other idle personsRepealed 1547 and 1531 restored poor children put to service impotent to be relieved and not to beg unless licensedHouse of Tudor16th
1551Histories of the Animals Histories of the Animals published by Swiss Physician Conrad Gesner forming the basis of Modern ZoologyHouse of Tudor16th
1555Relief of the Poor Provision for licensed beggars to wear badgesHouse of Tudor16th
1555Bishop Latimer and Bishop Ridley burnt at the stake and martyredLatimer and Ridley were two important Protestant bishops who, along with Archbishop Cranmer, made up the Oxford MartyrsHouse of Tudor16th
1555Muscovy Company granted charterThe Muscovy company was the first major chartered joint stock company that had a monopoly on trade between England and Russia and existed until the Russian Revolution, 1917House of Tudor16th
1556Nature of Metals published Foundation of Minerology, Nature of Metals published posthumously by Georgius AgricolaHouse of Tudor16th
1558Elizabethan SettlementFollowing the religious turmoil of the previous Tudor monarchs the Elizabethan Settlement was an attempt to unite the country. It was designed to settle the divide between Catholics and Protestants and address the differences in services and beliefs.
House of Tudor16th
1558French forces capture CalaisFrench troops captured Calais, England's last remaining territory on the European mainlandHouse of Tudor16th
1559New Act of Supremacy and Act of Uniformity are passedPublic officials had to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor of church. The heresy laws were repealed and the Act of Uniformity made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer compulsory.House of Tudor16th
1562Statute of ArtificersIn an attempt to regulate wages the Statute of Artificers sought to fix prices, impose maximum wages, restrict workers' freedom of movement and regulate trainingHouse of Tudor16th
1563Foxe's Book of MartyrsJohn Foxe’s Book of Martyrs has been called “The most important Christian work ever printed outside of the Bible itself.” It documents the martyrdom of all of history’s recorded saints from the original Apostles of the First Century, to the mid-16th Century Reformation. House of Tudor16th
1563Relief of the PoorAdditions to 1555 introducing fines for failure to contribute alms.House of Tudor16th
1567 French refugees St Juliens Chapel Southampton granted to Walloon French refugees for religious servicesHouse of Tudor16th
1568Mary, Queen of Scots, arrives in England and is imprisonedMary was fleeing Scotland following accusations of the murder of Lord Darnley. She landed in Cumbria and was taken into custody in Carlisle CastleHouse of Tudor16th
1569The Rising of the North, against Queen Elizabeth ICatholic nobles in the North of England attempt to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I.House of Tudor16th
1570Mercator mapMercator creates new mapping view of world shapes view of the world mapsHouse of Tudor16th
1571Ridolfi PlotA plot to replace Elizabeth I with Mary as Queen of England with the help of Spanish troops and the Duke of NorfolkHouse of Tudor16th
1572Supernova observed Supernova observed by Danish Astronomer Tycho BraheHouse of Tudor16th
1572Punishment of Vagabonds and for relief of the poor and impotentThis repeals earlier legislation and introduces whipping and burning of ear marks on vagabonds plus JPs to account for poor and enforce alms collection and control of poorHouse of Tudor16th
1576Setting the Poor on Work and the Avoidance of IdlenessProvides for local stock of materials for poor to work upon.House of Tudor16th
1581 Francis Drake knighted by Queen ElizabethFrancis Drake was knighted on the deck of the Golden Hind for services to England during his campaigns against Spanish ships in Europe and the Caribbean.House of Tudor16th
1582Revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of DesmondThis revolt was in reaction to English attempts to control Ireland. It resulted in 30,000 dead Irish due to scorch earth techniquesHouse of Tudor16th
1583Throckmorton PlotThe Throckmorton Plot was a Catholic plan to murder Elizabeth I and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. The plot is named after the key conspirator, Sir Francis ThrockmortonHouse of Tudor16th
1583John Bodey was executed at Andover for his Roman Catholic faithJohn Brodey attended Winchester College and Oxford and was an English Roman Catholic academic jurist and theologian. He is a Catholic martyr, beatified in 1929.House of Tudor16th
1585Treaty of NonsuchFollowing the death of William the Silent, Prince of Orange and a new Catholic alliance, Elizabeth decided to send troops to prevent Catholic domination in the Low Countries, instead supporting an independent Dutch kingdom.House of Tudor16th
1586Babington PlotThe Badington plot was led by Sir Anthony Babington and supported by the Spanish who wanted to replace Elizabeth with Mary, Queen of ScotsHouse of Tudor16th
1586Munster plantationsMunster Plantation beginnings in IrelandHouse of Tudor16th
1586Walter Raleigh introduces smoking tobacco into EnglandWalter Raleigh introduces the habit of smoking of tobacco from Virginia into EnglandHouse of Tudor16th
1587Sir Francis Drake raids CadizAs part of Drake's campaign against the Spanish he raids the port town of Cadiz, SpainHouse of Tudor16th
1587Mary, Queen of Scots is exectuedMary was accused of being part of the Babington plot and she was convicted of treason and executed, removing a Catholic threat in EnglandHouse of Tudor16th
1588Spanish Armada DefeatedSir Francis Drake defeats the Spanish ArmadaHouse of Tudor16th
1594Lord Chamberlain's Men theatre company founded The company was set up by Baron Hunsdon for royal entertaiment and was the main performer of William Shakespeare's playsHouse of Tudor16th
1596Oxford RisingThe harvests had failed the weather was bad and there was no relief for the poor in Elizabeth's England. So it was that a group of disgruntled and starving people developed a plan to seize weapons and armour and march on London, hoping to attract hundreds more as they went. They failed in their attempt and some were hanged for their treason.House of Tudor16th
1598Relief of the PoorParish organisation of curch wardens and overseers, JPs to keep accounts moderate tax between areas begging forbidden except in parish for foodHouse of Tudor16th
1598Punishment of Rogues Vagabonds and Sturdy BeggarsVagabonds to be whipped and returned to birthplace for 1 year with prison for dangerous roguesHouse of Tudor16th
1600Portsmouth receives a Royal Charter from Elizabeth IThe charter gave Portsmouth it's first definite status as a Royal Borough under a mayor elected by burgesses. The grant must not in any way impede the business or power of the Captain of Portsmouth thus emphasizing it's importance as the centre of the Navy and as a garrison town.House of Tudor17th
1601Queen Elizabeth I visits Basing HouseWith 360 rooms, Basing House was at one time the largest private house in England.House of Tudor17th
1603Clean water for the City of LondonThe New River Head Construction supplied clean water to City of London. Designed by engineer High Middleton and King James I who funded the amazing engineering project that saw 38 miles of engineering works to deliver the water, predating the canals by several centuries.House of Stuart17th
1603Sir Walter Raleigh tried for treason Sir Walter Raleigh tried for treason in the Great Hall Winchester but is later reprieved.House of Tudor17th
1604Guy Fawkes plot foiled and he was executed Guy Fawkes and other Catholic dissidents attempt to blow up King and Parliament in The Gunpowder Plot. They were betrayed and arrested and the four plotters were executed in St Pauls churchyard.House of Stuart17th
1604Charitable relief for plague sufferers.Charitable relief and ordering of persons infected with the Plague. Rates levy for infected and penalties for those leaving infected householdsHouse of Stuart17th
1607Flight of the Roman Catholic earls Flight of the Roman Catholic earls and lay leadership in fear of the Plantation of Ulster, this was the plantation of protestants a form of ethnic clensing, and resulted in the renaming of Derry to London Derry.House of Stuart17th
1608King James I grants Royal Charter for the Inns of TempleOne condition of this was that the Inns must maintain the church. The Temple and the church are still governed by that charter. In gratitude, the Inns gave King James a fine gold cup. Some years later, in the Civil war, his son Charles I needed funds to keep his army in the field. The cup was sold in Holland and has never been traced.Temple originated from Knights Templar, became 2 Inns of Court. At end of 16th century, the two Inns of Court had erected many fine buildings at the Temple, yet their position as tenants was insecure. To avoid future royal whims they petitioned the King for an improved tenure. The two Inns of Court are Inner and Middle TempleHouse of Stuart17th
1609Derry IrelandDerry renamed Londonderry source of much Protestant/Catholic sectarianism and also the Scot/Irish connections.House of Stuart17th
1610Wadham College Oxford University foundedWadham College was founded by Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham. Nicholas Wadham's entire fortune was left to endow a college at Oxford but it was not going to be easy. His greater family wanted to share his fortune between themselves but his widow Dorothy negotiated the entire proceedings determined that his will be done. She saw to all the building works and even appointed the first Warden, the Fellows and Scholars, as well as the college cook, to such effect that the college was ready for opening within four years of Nicholas's death, at this point she was nearly 80 years old. She added considerably to the endowment from her own resources, and kept tight control of its affairs until her death in 1618, although she never actually visited Oxford from her home in Devon. It became a magnet for the science thinkers of the day and became the regular meeting place for the natural scientists who, after 1660, became the founder members of the Royal Society.House of Stuart17th
1610Henry Hudson discovers Hudson BayDiscovery of Hudson Bay, the result of the search for the north West Passage. House of Stuart17th
1610Galileo observes Moons of Jupiter Galileo observes Moons of Jupiter with improved design of telescope.House of Stuart17th
1611King James Bible 1st Publishedscholars 17 westminster abbey, 15 each Cambridge and Oxford UniversityHouse of Stuart17th
1611Trees for the NavyFirst recorded felling of timber for the Navy in the New ForestHouse of Stuart17th
1612Last heretics burnedHeretics are burned at the stake for the last time in England.House of Stuart17th
1613James I deliberate settlement of many Scottish Protestants in Ireland This created a Catholic underclass and underpins the religious troubles that persisted to this dayHouse of Stuart17th
1614Logarithmic TablesMathematician John Napier published Logarithmic TablesHouse of Stuart17th
16185 Articles of Perth imposed by James VI on the KirkPartially successful attempt to make Scottish Kirk more like Church of England, includes obligation to observe Christmas & Easter.House of Stuart17th
1618 Raleigh fails in his expedition and is executed for treason at Westminster.Raleigh fails in his expedition and on his return is executed for alleged treason at Westminster.House of Stuart17th
161920 African Slaves sold to English Settlers in Jamestown VirginiaThe start of the slave trade in USHouse of Stuart17th
1620Departure of the Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower and SpeedwellThe Pilgrim Fathers set sail for America in the Mayflower. They land at Cape Cod and found New Plymouth. House of Stuart17th
1624Pembroke College Oxford university foundedPembroke College has it's origins in Broadgates Hall, which served as a hostel for law students. An Abingdon merchant, Thomas Tesdale, and a Berkshire clergyman, Richard Wightwick, provided the endowment for the transformation of Broadgates Hall into Pembroke College. It was to serve Abingdon, providing places for boys from Abingdon School. On 1624 King James I signed the letters patent to create the present college, which was named after the third Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain and Chancellor of the University, who had done much to promote the foundation. House of Stuart17th
1627Petition of Right 1627 the foundation of Civil Liberties across the worldWhilst Charles I reneged on it's provisions this was a foundation document of civil liberties and is echoed in the American ConsitutionHouse of Stuart17th
1628John Bunyan bornJohn Bunyan was an English Christian writer and preacher, who is well known for his book The Pilgrim's ProgressHouse of Stuart17th
1628Sickness in the NavyThe seaman in Portsmouth are in a great state of mutiny, much sickness and mortality and their general provisions are appalling. The fleet stood at 60 ships and 3934 menHouse of Stuart17th
1635King Charles I seizes Londonderry King Charles I seizes Londonderry and causes fury in London and with settlers. Another error that raises the fury of the merchants and livery companiesHouse of Stuart17th
1637Arminian influenced Prayer Book Imposed by Charles IArminian view followed duthc namesake that we choose to be good or eveil note predetermined as per Calvanists.House of Stuart17th
1637Harvard University Named after it's 1st benefactor, the young minister John Harvard of Charlestown, who upon his death in 1638 left his library and half his estate to the institution.House of Stuart17th
16381st Printing Press to USA on Vessel John of London 1638, the John of London set sail from Hull, England, bound for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Harvard historian Samuel Eliot Morison called the John of London “the publishing fraternity’s Mayflower.” The press belonged to Puritan Minister Joseph Glover and his wife Elizabeth. Joseph died on the transatlantic journey but his wife and the press continued. House of Stuart17th
1638National Covenant rejects Episcopacy in favour of PresbyterianismPresbyterianism gives no special status to individuals under God. Ministers of equal status, as councils national and local with lay elders, it was opposed to divine rights.House of Stuart17th
1641Cathloic uprising in Ireland with savage reprisals on Plantation Settlers and mutual atrocities.Catholics strike back in Ireland savage reprisals and atrocities on both sides. The Catholics made-up of Gaelic and Old English against Protestant Governement.House of Stuart17th
1642English Civil Military War Begins at Nottingham Outbreak of Civil Military War. Charles raises his standard at Nottingham. The Royalists win a tactical victory the Parliamentary army at the Battle of Edgehill but the outcome is inconclusive. House of Stuart17th
1642Tasmania discovered by Dutch Explorer Abel TasmanAlso known as Van Diemans land.House of Stuart17th
1642Federation of Kilkenny after Catholic Revolt set-up own government against English rule After Royalist defeat attracted increasing royalist support and maintatined control until Cromwell Invasion of 1649House of Stuart17th
1643During the Civil War Basing House is besiegedDuring the English Civil War parliament soldiers attempted to take control of Basing House, which was owned by the King's supporter, the Marquis of Winchester. This attempt failed, as did another a year later.House of Stuart17th
1644Battle of CheritonThe Battle of Cheriton was a victory for the Parliamentarians and gave them the confidence and resolve to defeat King CharlesHouse of Stuart17th
1645Parliament replaces Prayer book with Directory of worshipIn 1644 the Westminster Assembly began preparing a Directory of Worship to replace the Book of Common Prayer, which had been abolished. Three years were spent over the preparation of the Westminster Confession of Faith, which set out the creed of the reformed Church of England. House of Stuart17th
1646 Charles II surrenders to the Scots, who hand him over to Parliament. Negotiations take place between King and Parliament. King conspires with Scots to invade England on his behalf.House of Stuart17th
1646Parliament declares Episcopacy abolished.This is the abolition of government by the Bishops.House of Stuart17th
1649Cromwell invades IrelandCromwell winds and defeats Catholic and Royalist oppositionHouse of Stuart17th
1649InterregnumCommonwealth declared on 19th May 1649House of Stuart17th
1649Government by a council of stateWith the new Commonwealth established the country was now ruled by The Council of State. This was appointed by Parliament on 14 and 15 February 1649, with further annual elections. The Council's duties were to act as the executive of the country's government in place of the King and the Privy CouncilHouse of Stuart17th
1651Navigation OrdinanceNavigation Ordinance, barring imports of goods into England by non English vesselsHouse of Stuart17th
1651Cromwell orders destruction of Winchester CastleThe castle was used by the Royalists in the English Civil War, eventually falling to Parliamentarians in 1646, and then being demolished on Oliver Cromwell's orders in 1649House of Stuart17th
1652Irish Roman Catholic resistance to English invasion endsLarge-scale confiscation of Catholic lands ensues.House of Stuart17th
1653Instrument of GovernmentFirst written constitution in EnglandHouse of Stuart17th
1654Large-scale Confiscation of Catholic Lands throughout Ireland by English.Former owners forcibly moved to Connaught Galway and Clare with much new settlement by ex-parliamentarian soldiers.House of Stuart17th
1660Oxford and Cambridge discriminate against NonconformistsIt would take until the C19th before discrimination against dissenters was abolished. Education was the principal area of discrimination remaining against dissenters. They were excluded from Oxford and Cambridge by religious tests. House of Stuart17th
1662Earl of Sandwich arrives at Spithead with the fleet conveying Catherine of Braganza. Charles II marries her at PortsmouthThe marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza took place in Government House, the Royal Garrison Church, Portsmouth.House of Stuart17th
1662Revised Prayer Book made MandatoryAbout 2000 clergy refuse the revised book.House of Stuart17th
1662Act of Uniformity The Act of Uniformity compels Puritans to accept the doctrines of the Church of England or leave the church.House of Stuart17th
1665London Gazette foundedFascinating history of what is claimed to be the longest running newspaper but it is not really a newspaper as such but a publication that records statutory notices such as bankruptcy that have to be published. As such it is a wonderful source for family historians and can be searched digitally. It started life as the Oxford Gazette when the court of King Charles II left London because of the plague and would not handle any papers from London for fear of contracting the disease. When the court returned to London the paper came with them and was renamed, The London Gazette.House of Stuart17th
1665Five Mile ActThe Five Mile Act was intended to prevent nonconformist ministers from coming within five miles of any corporation that returned members of parliament, or any parish where they had been the minister or preached since 1660. Offenders risked a £40 fine or six months’ imprisonment.House of Stuart17th
1669Tea arrives in BritainFirst importation of tea from India by The East India CompanyHouse of Stuart17th
1669Coffee arrives in EuropeCoffee introduced to Italy and then rest of EuropeHouse of Stuart17th
1669John Worlidge of Petersfield recommended sowing turnips and "several new
Species of Hay or Grass," and floating water meadows, to improve fodder for sheep for the wool industry
John Worlidge was one of the first British agriculturalists to discuss the importance of farming as an industry. In his most notable book, Vinetum britannicum, Worlidge advocated the production of cider over that of wine in Great Britain because it was better suited to the climate and resources.House of Stuart17th
1670Dissenting academies established Dissenting academies established to teach law, medicine, commerce, engineering and arts. They are the forerunners to our current universities and former polytechnics.House of Stuart17th
1673First Test ActThe First Test Act, requiring all holders of offices to repudiate Catholicism and DissentHouse of Stuart17th
1675Quaker meetings held.Quaker monthly meetings for Sufferings establishedHouse of Stuart17th
1675Greenwich Royal Observatory founded Greenwich Royal Observatory founded by King Charles IIHouse of Stuart17th
1675First Astronomer RoyalJohn Flamsteed as first Astronomer RoyalHouse of Stuart17th
1678 The Popish PlotThe Popish Plot is fabricated by Titus Oates. He alleges a Catholic plot to murder the King and restore Catholicism. The Government over-reacts, and many Catholic subjects are persecuted.House of Stuart17th
1678Second Test Act Second Test Act banning all Catholics from ParliamentHouse of Stuart17th
1679Habeas Corpus ActThe Habeas Corpus act passed which forbids imprisonment without trial, is one of Britains most important acts giving rights to the individual which many countries even today do not uphold.House of Stuart17th
1680Penny Post Service started in LondonAlthough Oliver Cromwell had affirmed a system for the delivery of letters in 1654 it was not until 1680 that the London Penny Post began. Letters could, on payment of one penny be delivered to the city of London, Westminster and Southwark. Anywhere within a 10 mile radius cost another penny.House of Stuart17th
1682Foundation of the Royal Hospital Chelsea Foundation of the Royal Hospital Chelsea by King Charles II for veteran soldiersHouse of Stuart17th
1683Ashmolean Museum in Oxford foundedEstablishment of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford based on the collection of Elias AshmoleHouse of Stuart17th
1685Bloody Assize at Winchester CastleThe castle at Winchester was used a s a law court, most notably by Judge Jeffries, who held his Bloody Assize there. House of Stuart17th
1689Toleration ActNon jurors refused to accept William & mary as Monarch, they were High Church clerics.House of Stuart17th
1689Toleration Act 1689Toleration of the dissenters this was the start of state supported religious tolerance.House of Stuart17th
1690James II defeated ends Catholic hopes of regaining powerDefeat ends Catholic Catholic hopes of regaining power. Legislation ensues designed to deny them wealth and/or influence.House of Stuart17th
1691Death George Fox George Fox was the founder of the Quaker MovenmentHouse of Stuart17th
1699Systema Agriculturae publishedWorlidge wrote extensively about all aspects of agriculture in Hampshire, including, cider making, bee keeping and gardeningHouse of Stuart17th
1700Charity schools for the poor establishedThe charity schools were a recognition that education for children had fallen to the lowest following the closure of the monasteries post reformation education for the poor was virtually non existent.House of Stuart18th
1703Great Storm of 1703A rare tropical cyclone found its way onshore in southern England on 26 November. Property was destroyed in London and it is reported that 2,000 chimney stacks collapsed in London alone and great damage was done in the New Forest, where 4,000 of its valuable oak trees were lost.House of Stuart18th
1703Birth John WesleyJohn Wesley founder of the Methodist Movement.House of Stuart18th
1706Sun Fire Insurance COmpany office is founded in LondonSun Fire Insurance, the lead insignia can still be seen attached to the outside of some housesHouse of Stuart18th
1707Acts of UnionThe Acts of Union, passed by the English and Scottish Parliaments in 1707, led to the creation of the United Kingdom of Great BritainHouse of Stuart18th
1709Parliamentary enclosure of land has begun The first act of Parliamentary enclosure in Hampshire begins with an Act to enclose 500 acres of land at Ropley Commons in the manors of Ropley and Bishops SuttonHouse of Stuart18th
1712Thomas Newcomen patents his atmospheric (steam) engine1st commercially successful steam engine. Able to keep deep coal mines clear of water, this was 1st significant power source since wind and water.House of Stuart18th
1712Jonas Hanway was born in PortsmouthJonas Hanway was an English traveller and philanthropist becoming a founder of the marine society, a scheme inspired by his work and knowledge of abandoned children in the Portsmouth docks.House of Stuart18th
1717Free Masons Grand Lodge of England foundedAlthough there were earlier records of the making of 'Freemasons' Organised Freemasonry began with the founding of the Grand Lodge of England on 24 June 1717, the first Grand Lodge in the world.Georgian18th
1720The Haymarket theatre The love of theatre going meant many theatres were established in this period. The Haymarket theatre opened in London.Georgian18th
1720Gilbert White was born in SelborneGilbert White was born in his grandfathers house in Selborne. He studied at Oxford before becoming ordained and eventually writing as a naturalist.Georgian18th
1723Workhouse Act This Act had a "workhouse test" a person who wanted to receive poor relief had to enter a workhouse and undertake a set amount of work. The test was intended to prevent irresponsible claims on a parish's poor rate.Georgian18th
1727First Coffee Plantation foundedFirst coffee Plantation in BrazilGeorgian18th
1734LLoyds List first publishedLLoyds List first started publishing shipping news, this was from a coffee house in LondonGeorgian18th
1740George Anson circumnavigates the globe While Great Britain was at war with Spain in 1740, Commodore George Anson led a squadron of eight ships on a mission to disrupt or capture Spain's Pacific possessions. Returning to England in 1744 by way of China and thus completing a circumnavigationGeorgian18th
1740Jacobite threat faded Jacobite threat faded and official repression of Cathlics starts to be relaxedGeorgian18th
1743Northampton spinning factoryWyatt and Paul open a spinning factory in Northampton with 5 machines of 50 spindlesGeorgian18th
1744Meeting of Methodist Preachers.First Conference of Methodist Preachers.Georgian18th
1745Jacobite RebellionThe Jacobite dream of ruling Great Britain flared up again a generation later, under the leadership of the Old Pretender’s son, Charles. Known as “Bonnie Prince Charlie”. He saw his chance to rebel against the British as its military was engaged overseas in Europe and elsewhere around the world.He wanted an uprising that would regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart.Georgian18th
1749Bow Street Runners Londons 1st professional police force is founded by Henry Fielding, to start with this was just 8 men taking direct action against the criminal fraternityGeorgian18th
17567 Years War Hanover Britain and Prussia clash with France Austria and Russia. It will cost Britain dearly and take years to replenish the treasury.Georgian18th
1757Battle of PlasseyClive of India defeats Bengalis at Battle of Plassey, start of the British Empire.Secures Bengal for British East India Company and control over much of IndiaGeorgian18th
1760Academy for the Deaf Thomas Braidwood's Academy for the Deaf opened in EdinburghGeorgian18th
1761James Brindley's Bridgewater Canal opensSometimes described at England's earliest canal this is not strictly true but still an incredible feat of engineering. The Duke of Bridgewater, was looking for ways to transport coal from his mines at Worsley into Manchester. His father had looked at the idea of making the Worsley Brook navigable to connect with the Mersey and Irwell Navigation but nothing was done. The Duke had seen examples of canals in France and this gave him the idea to create a waterway that was independent from a river route. In 1758 the Duke called in James Brindley to look at ways of constructing a canal and of improving the drainage of the mines. The Duke decided to combine the two aims by linking the mines to the canal by an underground canal. It became an extravagant engineering project. The Duke's first proposal was for a canal from Worsley to Ordsall in Salford. Later, this was amended in favour of a more bold proposal, to cross the Mersey and Irwell Navigation at Barton and run to the edge of central Manchester. This route needed no locks but involved the construction of an aqueduct across the Irwell at Barton. No aqueduct on this scale had been constructed before in England. Georgian18th
1763William Cobbett was bornWilliam Cobbett, journalist, politician and farmer. Cobbett rode all over Hampshire and wrote his book Rural Rides.Georgian18th
1763Treaty of Paris confirmed British Supremacy in AmericasThe Seven Years War had taken it's toil on Britain, France and their allies. The Treaty of Paris Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France, brought the war to a conclusion. France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies there.Georgian18th
1765Stamp ActThe Stamp Act imposed a tax to raise revenue for defending the colonies of North America and West Indies. It ultimately led to the Boston Tea Party and American rebellionGeorgian18th
1767Townsend Act This act Chancellor imposed taxes on goods imported to America. It was later repealed except for on teaGeorgian18th
1769Spitalfield Riots during decline of Silk Industry quashed with extreme force and punishment2 men an Irish weaver and a Huguenot are hanged in front of Salmon and Ball Pub in Bethnall GreenGeorgian18th
1772Staffordhsire & Worcester Canal opensThis llinked partially completed Grand Trunk to Severn at Stourport.Georgian18th
1773Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Tea Party was the result of the colonies refusal to pay the levies required by the Townsend Acts claiming they had no obligation to pay taxes imposed by a Parliament in which they had no representation. In response, Parliament retracted the taxes with the exception of a duty on tea. This was a demonstration of Parliament's ability and right to tax the colonies.Beginning of the end of British rule in America war in 1774. Although the tax to be levied was small, if the colonists paid it, they would still be bowing to the rule of the British, something they were not prepared to accept.Georgian18th
1774Steam engine factory opened in Bimingham Matthew Boulton and James Watt open their steam engine factory in Soho BirminghamGeorgian18th
1774Repeal of the Calico ActGovernment permits use and wear of of any new manufactured stuffs wholly made of cotton, ending years of prohibitive restrictions and dutiesGeorgian18th
1775American War of IndependenceThe American War of Independence had supporters on both sides of the Atlantic, it was an inevitable war, political and economic concerns led the inhabitants of Britain’s 13 American colonies to rebel and although the conflict led to the loss of Britain’s American territories, not everyone supported the rising and it divided families and communities across North America. It led to the American Declaration of Independence in 1776.Georgian18th
1776Portsmouth Dockyard set ablazeJack the Painter set fire to Portsmouth Dockyard because he was sympathetic to the cause of the American Revolution. Jack was hung on Portsmouth waterfrontGeorgian18th
17791st iron bridge built near CoalbrookdaleEast Shropshire was an important industrial area thanks to coal deposits near the surface. By 1635 annual production from Broseley and Benthall was around 100,000 tons per year mainly for export, but also for fuelling local clay industries and lead.
The world's first cast iron bridge was built over the River Severn at Coalbrookdale to further exploit and develop these resources.
Georgian18th
1780Gordan Riots in LondonThe riots based on anti -Catholic feeling in Britain were the closest the country came to anarchy.Georgian18th
1780Derby horse race First running of the Derby horse race at EpsomGeorgian18th
1781Battle of Yorktown Battle of Yorktown Washington Republicans and French defeated BritishGeorgian18th
1782Foundation of the Foreign OfficeThe Foreign Office was formed by combining the Southern and Northern Departments of the Secretary of State, each of which covered both foreign and domestic affairs in their parts of the Kingdom. Georgian18th
1782Gilberts Act Gilberts Act 1782 an attempt to improve humanitarian basis of poor lawGeorgian18th
1783American War of Independence ends with treaty of ParisWith much reluctance the Treaty of Paris was signed The Treaty of Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, it ended the American Revolutionary War.Georgian18th
1784The India Act The Pitt’s India Act, 1784 also called the East India Company Act, 1784 was passed by the British Parliament to correct the defects of the Regulating Act of 1773. This act resulted in dual control of British possessions in India by the British government and the Company with the final authority resting with the government. This act continued in effect until 1858.Georgian18th
1784First mail coach First mail coach runs from Bristol to LondonGeorgian18th
1787Edmund Cartwright opens the first weaving shed Edmund Cartwright opens the first weaving shed in Doncaster powered by a bull, two years later a steam engine is installedGeorgian18th
1787First fleet of convicts sets sail First fleet of convicts sets sail from Portsmouth bound for New South WalesGeorgian18th
1788First British convict fleet arrives in Australia Penal colony established at SydneyGeorgian18th
1789Publication of Gilbert White's 'The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne'A compilation of letters sent to to Thomas Pennant, the leading British zoologist of the day, and the Hon. Daines Barrington, an English barrister and another Fellow of the Royal Society. These letters contained the discoveries made by White of local birds, animals and plantsGeorgian18th
1790Grand Cross completedThe Grand Cross is completed with the opening of the Coventry and Oxford Canal. Links Thames between them with Grand Trunk CanalGeorgian18th
1791School for the Blind School for Instruction for the Indigent Blind established in Liverpool.Georgian18th
1791Canal mania Canal mania as more than 40 canals are planned and built over the next decade.Georgian18th
1792French King Louis XVI overthrown and executedReign of Terror led by Robespierre beginsGeorgian18th
1792Mary Wollstonecraft publishes Vindication of the Rights of WomenMakes case for egalitarian ideas and rights of women in Britain.Georgian18th
1793French RevolutionWar was taking its toll and British government was in fear of the potential for revolutionary zeal being spread to Britain. The fear was of radicals at home combining with forces from France in particular with the London Corresponding Society. Problems in Britain were so bad that Pitt suspended Habeaus Corpeus. Leading radicals were arrested and Horne Took, Thomas Hardy and others were accused of treason. In 1795 Britain secured the Indian Trade Route by seizing Cape Town from the Dutch. The late 18th and early 19th Centuries were troubled times, much of which would originate from disputes over control of trade routes, colonies and the intense pursuit of economic exploitation of he resources of those territories.Georgian18th
1795Food sterilizationNicolas Appert developed a process for preserving food in airtight bottles after sterilization. Napoleon had realized that in order to feed his troops effectively they needed to eat well and therefore encouraged the process of sterilisationGeorgian18th
1797Great mutiny at SpitheadIn 1797, 16 ships-of-the-line of the Channel fleet refused to sail, and mounted a collective mutiny at Spithead. Their demands were concerned with improved pay and conditions, and better treatment in general. The Nore Mutiny a month later was even more serious.Georgian18th
1798The Battle of the NileThis was a critical Battle against the French. Bonaparte sought to invade Egypt as the first step in a campaign against British India, part of a greater effort to drive Britain out of the French Revolutionary Wars. The chase was on across the Mediterranean, Nelson who had been sent from the British fleet in the Tagus to learn the purpose of the French expedition and to defeat it. He chased the French for more than two months until finally he faced the French fleet at at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from the 1st to the 3rd of August. It was a victory for Nelson.Georgian18th
1799First anaestheticHumphry Davy discovers nitrous oxide first effective anaesthetic.Georgian18th
1800Act of Union The Act of Union with Ireland created United KingdomGeorgian19th
1801Trevithick built a full-size steam road locomotive Trevithick named his carriage 'Puffing Devil' and on Christmas Eve that year, he demonstrated it by successfully carrying several men up Fore Street and then continuing on up Camborne Hill, to the nearby village of Beacon. This is widely recognised as the first demonstration of transportation powered by steam. Georgian19th
1802Treaty of Amiens between England and FranceThe treaty brings a temporary halt to the Napoleonic War bringing much needed relief to British manufacturing industriesGeorgian19th
1802Mass production block making machines installed Portsmouth Naval BaseMarc Brunel designed a block making machine having learned of the Royal Navy's problem sourcing 100,000 blocks each year for it's ships.Georgian19th
1802Richard Trevithick builds first high pressure steam engineFreed of Watt's patent constraints Trevithick makes an advance with high pressure steam engine designGeorgian19th
1802Treaty of Amiens between England and France at the end of the French Revolutionary WarBritish hoped this treaty would provide sound basis for peace, French intended to set the scope for their complete domination of Europe and foundation for further expansion in the Mediterranean and America. It's failure resulted in the Napoleonic Wars.Georgian19th
1802Peel's Factory ActThis is the first of the Factory Acts in which modest regulations are imposed on working conditionsGeorgian19th
1803Britain declared war on FranceNapoleonic War resumes after Britain refuses to cede Malta to France. The French army is encamped at Boulogne threatening invasion of EnglandGeorgian19th
1803napoleonic warsNational assembly formed and Paris is under mob ruleGeorgian19th
1803West India Docks Established providing berths for larger shipsThe West India Docks were allowed by an act of parliament in 1799 and were the idea of Robert Milligan a wealthy trader and businessman whose family ran sugar plantations in Jamaica. He got so fed up losing money in London as his ships were delayed in the London port or had their cargo stolen that he headed a group of powerful businessmen, including the chairman of the London Society of West India Planters and Merchants, George Hibbert. They set to to promote the creation of a wet dock circled by a high wall. The group planned and built West India Docks, lobbying Parliament to allow the creation of a West India Dock Company. The area of the West India Docks in now Canary Wharf, a development of offices, retail and residential living.Georgian19th
1803Caledonian Ship CanalAn amazing engineering achievement, the Caledonian Ship Canal was dug across Scotland via the Great GlenGeorgian19th
1804A Richard Trevithick locomotive runs in Wales The Trevithick locomotive is installed at the Penydarren Mine hauling 10 tonnes at a speed of 5m.p.h. for 8 milesGeorgian19th
1805Nelson's fleet sails from Portsmouth for the Battle of TrafalgarNelson sailed the fleet off the coast of Spain and took on the combined navys of France and Spain. He was victorious and in part that was due to the skill of Nelson himself as he departured from the prevailing naval tactical orthodoxy of the day. He lost his life during the battle but the fate of the French and Spanish fleet had been sealed.Georgian19th
1805William Cobbett farmer / journalistWilliam Cobbett chiefly remembered for his account of travels through rural England, 'Rural Rides'. He was also a journalist who wrote about the poverty and injustice he saw on his travels. He was keen to become a successful farmer and landowner and in the 15 years he lived in Hampshire, that is what he set out to do.Georgian19th
1805Grand Junction CanalGrand Junction Canal links Birmingham and LondonGeorgian19th
18052nd Maratha WarBritish East India Company troops were waging war concerning the politics and control of the Maratha Confederacy. The company's attempt to control central and southern India laid the ground for further subsequent conflict.Georgian19th
1806Birth of Isambard Kingdom Brunel in PortsmouthThis great engineer, son of Marc Brunel was born in Portsmouth into the heart of the Royal Navy and docks.Georgian19th
1806East India Docks Established LondonThe East India Docks were largely established by the East India Company and was a very profitable dock, with the tea trade alone worth £30 million per year. Other goods traded through the dock included spices, indigo, silk and Persian carpets. Spice merchants and pepper grinders were situated in the general vicinity of the dock, ready to receive the goods to process and sell.Georgian19th
1807Parochial Schools Bill The Parochial Schools Bill made provision for educating the labouring classesGeorgian19th
1807Oystermouth Railway. The Oystermouth Railway was the first horse-powered railway to carry passengersGeorgian19th
1808Lancashire riots call for a minimum wageRiots throughout Lancashire as the Napoleonic War tightens it's grip causing a recession. They call for a minimum wage and burn down Rochdale prison releasing prisoners. A volunteer force is deployed against Stockport weaversGeorgian19th
1809Weavers minimum wage bill rejected by Commons6000 weavers assemble on St Georges fields Manchester. Dragoons and police clear the fieldGeorgian19th
1809Peninsular War beginsThe Peninsular War was part of the Napoleonic War between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. Georgian19th
1810Improvement Commissioners A body of men called Improvement Commissioners is formed to pave, clean and light the streets in market towns.Georgian19th
1810Tin Canning process invented A method of preserving animal food, vegetable food and other perishable articles using various vessels made of glass, pottery, tin or other suitable metals. The preservation procedure was to fill up a vessel with food and cap it. Vegetables were to be put in raw, whereas animal substances might either be raw or half-cooked. Then the whole item was to be heated by any means, such as an oven, stove or a steam bath,Georgian19th
1810Kennet & Avon Canal This lovely canal comprises a canalised section of the river Kennet from the Thames in Reading to Newbury, a canalised section of the river Avon from Bath to Bristol, and an entirely man-made section of canal linking Newbury and Bath. The Canal is 86.6 miles (139.2 km) long and has 107 locks.Georgian19th
1811Calvanistic Methodists split from established churchWales at this time was dominated by the older Dissenting movements of the Independents and Baptists and the newer Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists. The Calvinists became the largest Nonconformist denomination in Wales, the movement separated from the Church of England in 1811 and established a Confession of Faith in 1823. Georgian19th
1811Huddersfield Canal builtThis canal was an outstanding feat of engineering history. Work on the construction of the Huddersfield Narrow Canal began in 1794. The direct route chosen involved a daring plan for a tunnel more than 3 miles long under the Pennines at Standedge, longer than any other canal tunnel. The scheme faltered for many reasons, it was beset with flooding problems, lack of organisation and it had never been done before. Benjamin Outram, the original engineer did not have time to commit to the project and when he resigned Thomas Telford was called in to complete the project.Georgian19th
1812Luddite riotsRioters attack steam driven weaving shedsGeorgian19th
1812Birth of Charles Dickens in PortsmouthCharles Dickens, author and social reformer was born in Portsmouth in 1812, where his father John worked in the Navy Pay Office in the dockyard.Georgian19th
1813First canning factory in LondonCanning Factory Donkin, Hall and Gamble set up first canning factory in LondonGeorgian19th
1813Highways ActHighways Act to improve British roadsGeorgian19th
1813Russian War with PersiaWar is triggered by Russian expansionism and annexation of Georgia and Karabakh. Territorial and imperial tensions are building in the Middle East.Georgian19th
1814British and Foreign School Society British and Foreign School Society founded by liberal Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Jews as an alternative to the National SocietyGeorgian19th
1814Grand union Canal openedThe Grand Union Canal is a major canal starting in London and ending in Birmingham. It stretches for 137 miles with 166 locks. It connects places including Leicester, Slough, Aylesbury, Wendover and Northampton. Georgian19th
1815First crushed and consolidated stone road builtJohn Macadam uses a new technique of using crushed stones to build better roadsGeorgian19th
1815Battled of Waterloo Napolean DefeatedWellington's army which consisted of two thirds soldiers who were not British fought this defining battle that brought an end to the bloody war with Napolean. The allied forces, consisting of British, Dutch, Belgian and German soldiers, thwarted the attempts of European dominance by Napoleon Bonaparte. The battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815), which took the lives of 5 million people.Georgian19th
1815Trouble in the countryside post WaterlooBands of de-mobbed soldiers roam the Hampshire countryside, camping in an area of the Forest of Bere, now known as WaterloovillGeorgian19th
1815Miners safety lampSir Humphrey Davy invents a lamp that will not cause explosions in the minesGeorgian19th
1817Blanketeers MarchReformers meet at St Peter's Fields Manchester to plan a march on London of handloom weavers to deliver a petition to the Government demanding reform to pay and conditionsGeorgian19th
1818Border between US and CanadaThe border between the US and Canada west of the Great Lakes is fixed at the 49th parallel.Georgian19th
1818First blood transfusionFirst blood transfusion by British Obstetrician James Blundell, conducted using a Syringe to transfer the blood between patientsGeorgian19th
1819Singapore foundedFounded by Sir Stamford Raffles as Britain expands its Empire into Malaya.Georgian19th
1822Caledonian Canal openedThis Thomas Telford canal is surely one of the most impressive and the most useful of canals. It connects the east and west coast of Scotland. The east coast at Inverness with the west coast at Corpach near Fort William.Georgian19th
1823Portsmouth & Arundel Canal The canal was cut to join the Arun Navigation at Ford, north of Littlehampton, East Sussex, to Chichester Harbour; by dredged channels round Thorney and Hayling Islands, and across Langstone Harbour; and finally a cut across Portsea Island to Portsmouth. The route gave give access to London, through the Arun Navigation, Wey and Arun Canal, Wey Navigation, and River Thames. Georgian19th
1824Thames and Medway CanalThis was always a difficult canal, it leaked quite badly and the hoped for commercial success of transporting hops from the Kent hop fields never materialised.Georgian19th
1825Liverpool Institute openedThe Liverpool mechanics Institute was founded to provide education to working men mainly through evening classes.Georgian19th
1825Self Acting Mule invented for Cotton industry invented by Richard RobertsReduces costs of production by 15% compared to semi-manual mulesGeorgian19th
1825Stockton to Darlington RailwayGeorge Stephenson was employed as engineer to the railwayGeorgian19th
1825Universities Act This was an Act of Parliament which provided for officers of police constable status to be employed within Cambridge and Oxford Universities.Georgian19th
1825Invention of the electro-magnet by William SturgeonThe electro-magnet invented by William Sturgeon was the springboard for many other inventions and innovationsGeorgian19th
1826Liverpool Manchester line commenced by Stephensons father and sonThey used the Rocket at opneing Member of Board of Trade killed at opening misjudged speed and breaking distance what a start...Georgian19th
1828Ring Spinning for Cotton industry patented in US by J ThorpeDoes not cross Atlantic until 1860s not wide adopted for some time makes spinning continuous and can be worked by women at high speed quality does not suit english conditions?Georgian19th
1828Protestant Nonconformists allowed to hold public office.English and welsh Protestants who do not belong to the Church of England are Nonconformists, old dissenters and Quakers and had previously been banned from holding public office.Georgian19th
1828Navy purchased the Weevil Brewery at Gosport. It became the Royal Clarence victualing yard providing beer and biscuits for the Navy Georgian19th
1829Birth of John Everett MillaisMillais was born in Southampton, the son of John William Millais, a wealthy gentleman from an old Jersey family. His mother's family were prosperous saddlers. Considered a child prodigy, he came to London in 1838. He was sent to Sass's Art School, and won a silver medal at the Society of Arts Georgian19th
1829King's College London establishedKing's College London King's was established by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter (as a university college), and claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in EnglandGeorgian19th
1829Catholic Emancipation (Relief) ActThis Act enabled Catholics to hold most public offices. Originated in response to as Co Clare elections. It destroyed the administration of Peel and Wellington. The Monarch until this government has not been allowed to be a Catholic, this will be resolved in forthcoming legislation together with equality of gender in the line of succession.Georgian19th
1830Swing riotsThe fall out after the Napoleonic War led to great instability in terms of employment and wages. The term Swing riots refer to the general uprising of agricultural workers from the eastern and southern parts of England in 1830. Rioters, impoverished and landless peasants, sought to put an end to the wage reductions imposed by the advent of threshers on farms. The rioters sought higher wages and the end to mechanisation.Georgian19th
1830Beer ActThe 1830 Beer Act allowed any ratepayer to buy a licence to brew and sell beer. It was difficult for magistrates to control beer was still viewed as nutritious but polite society were concerned at the increase in drunkenness and complained about the Act.Georgian19th
1830Indian Removal ActAllowed for the permanent removal of American Indians from their land.Georgian19th
1831Macclesfield CanalThe Macclesfield canal was one of the last to be built in Britain. It links the Peak Forest Canal with the Trent and Mersey Canal and forms part of the "Cheshire Ring.Georgian19th
1832British Representation of the People Act The Reform Act gave one million people the right to voteGeorgian19th
1833Southampton Chain Pier is openedThe Duchess of Kent opened Southampton's Chain Pier which heralded the rapid development of the portGeorgian19th
1833British Abolition of Slavery Act 1833This Act reached out across the entire British Empire, not just the home territories.Georgian19th
1833British Emancipation Act 1833The William Wilberforce campaign resulted in legislation giving all slaves in the British empire their freedom, albeit after a set period of years. They received no compensation for their enslavement whereas plantation owners received compensation for the 'loss of their slaves' in the form of a government grant set at £20,000,000. The slaves did then receive a wage for their work on the plantations but they were extremely low.Georgian19th
1833Kebble's Assizes sermon triggers the Oxford MovementKebble was a High Church cleric a leader of the Anglo Catholics, which led to the Oxford Movement. Kebble College Oxford is named after him. Even in recent times it is this body that is anti-ordination of women and again the church faces similar challenges with the Anglo-Catholics.Georgian19th
1834Poor Law Amendment ActPoor relief much more harshly administered.Georgian19th
1835Birmingham & Liverpool CanalAnother vital transport connection in the heart of the industrial Midlands but the age of the railway is just around the corner and the canals become less important.Georgian19th
1836Home and Colonial Institution founded to establish infant schoolsIt was an Anglican institution, founded “for the Improvement and Extension of the Infant School System and Home and Abroad, and for the Education of Teachers”,Georgian19th
1836Railway Mania The first wave of railway mania developed from the steam engine and trams used in mines.Georgian19th
1836Southampton Dock Company incorporatedAct of Parliament was passed authorizing the newly-formed Southampton Dock Company to construct a dock at Southampton. The foundation stone of the new docks was subsequently laid on 12 October 1838. The Dock Company managed the affairs of the docks until 1892 when ownership passed into the hands of the London and South Western Railway Company.Georgian19th
1837Louis Daguerre's first daguerreotype photographic imageThe first image that was fixed and did not fade and needed under thirty minutes of light exposure.Victorian19th
1837Normal School of Design established in LondonThe Normal School of Design would become the Royal College of ArtVictorian19th
1838People's Charter PublishedThis very important document was written mainly by a man called William Lovett of the London Working Men’s Association and it stated the ideological basis of the Chartist movement. It rapidly gained support across the country and its supporters became known as the Chartists.Victorian19th
1838First Afghan WarThe First Anglo-Afghan War was a complax affair involving the East India Company and politics of the British at the height of Empire. It began when the British launched an invasion of Afghanistan from India with the aim of overthrowing the Afghan ruler, Amir Dōst Moḥammad Khān, and replacing him with the supposedly pro-British former ruler, Shāh Shujāʻ. At first it seemed that the British were going to be successful. They installed Shāh Shujāʻ as ruler in Jalalabad and forced Dōst Moḥammad to flee the country. But in 1841 Dōst Moḥammad returned to Afghanistan to lead an uprising against the invaders and Shāh Shujāʻ. In one of the most disastrous defeats in British military history, in January 1842 an Anglo-Indian force of 4,500 men and thousands of followers was annihilated by Afghan tribesmen. The British then sent a larger force from India to exact retribution and to recover hostages, before finally withdrawing in October 1842. It was a humiliating and costly mistake one that the British would repeat several times.Victorian19th
1838Irish church tithesCatholic and Dissenters obligation to pay tithe to Church of Ireland is endedVictorian19th
1838The Morton seed drill is developedIncreased efficiency spreading seed, less waste higher yields, producing more food for the populationVictorian19th
1839Newport Rising by ChartistsThousands of Chartists had marched on Newport in Wales in what has become known as the Newport Rising. Estimates of the numbers vary. Some say there were as many as 20,000 men but likely is it was closer to 5,000. The marchers arrived in Newport on 4th November 1839 they discovered that the authorities had made more arrests and were holding several Chartists in the Westgate Hotel. The Chartists marched to the hotel and began chanting "surrender our prisoners". Twenty-eight soldiers had been placed inside the Westgate Hotel and when the order was given they began firing into the crowd. Afterwards it was estimated that over twenty men were killed and another fifty were wounded.Frost and others involved in the march on Newport were arrested and charged with high treason. Several of the men, including John Frost, were found guilty and sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Victorian19th
1839Education Department establishedThe Education Department was set up to regulate and manage schools.Victorian19th
1839Custody of Infants Act 1839Mothers of unblemished character under 7 could claim custody in event of marital separation.Victorian19th
1840Grammar Schools Act Grammar Schools Act allowed endowments to be spent on modern and commercial subjectsVictorian19th
1841Five school sites act passed The next 11 years saw the purchase of land for school buildings and allowed for Parliamentary Grants for the education of the poorVictorian19th
1842 Miners Act The Miners Act prevented women, girls and children under 10 years old from working down mines.Victorian19th
1843Free Church of Scotland formed in the DisruptionMajor upheaval of Church of scotland. More than 40% of clergy leave to form Free Chuch of ScotlandVictorian19th
1843Thames Tunnel openedOpening of the Thames Tunnel, constructed by Sir Marc Brunel and his son Isambard.Victorian19th
1844Railway Act 1844After the massive expansion of the railway network there needed to be some form of control for the travelling public to set a minimum standard for rail passenger travel. The railways were meant to be for all people, to expand the British economy. The Act then demanded the railway companies to provide compulsory services at a price affordable to poorer people to enable them to travel to find workVictorian19th
1846Irish potato famineA fungus ruined the potato crop in Europe which led to starvation for many people in Ireland. The same the following year accompanied by an outbreak of typhoidVictorian19th
1847Peerage of Anthony de RothschildAnthony de Rothschild member of the dynastic Jewish family was made the the 1st Baronet de Rothschild, of Tring Park by Queen Victoria. The close involvement of the family with the financing of European and international governments highly influential. This was a landmark peerage. Queen Victoria had previously refused to bestow a peerage to a member of the dynasty previously.Victorian19th
1847Institution of Mechanical Engineers foundedThe institution was founded in Birmingham with George Stephenson as its first presidentVictorian19th
1847Practical anaesthesiaScottish Doctor Use Chloroform for the first time. A primitive contraption of a Chloroform Inhaler administers the Chloroform.Victorian19th
1848Gold in CaliforniaGold is discovered in California prompting a massive gold rush.Victorian19th
1848Queen's College LondonQueen's College was set up in Harley Street London as a college for womenVictorian19th
1850Libraries Act 1850This act gave local boroughs the right to open free libraries thus giving access to books as never before.Victorian19th
1851Great ExhibitionThe Great Exhibition was a showcase for British inventiveness and designVictorian19th
1851Sheffield Womens Political Association formedSheffield Womens Political Association formed. It was the first suffragette organisation set up in the country.Victorian19th
1851Mayhews Social Survey of London's Poor Mayhews 'Social Survey of London's Poor' was first published by the Morning Chronicle. This ground breaking survey eventually became a book, ' London Labour and the London Poor'.Victorian19th
1852New Houses of ParliamentThe old Palace of Westminster was burned down in 1834. The new was designed by Sir Charles Barry.Victorian19th
1852Burial ActThe Burial Act closed the city's burial grounds and purpose built cemeteries were established on the fringes of the metropolitan area.Victorian19th
1852Funeral of the Duke of WellingtonThe 'Iron Duke' was 83 years old when he died. His funeral was attended by tens of thousands of peopleVictorian19th
1853New towns being built in New Zealand and AustraliaBritain was developing important settlements with the view to trading with these countries.Victorian19th
1853Crimean WarBritain fought in the Crimean War and will long be remembered because of the bravery of the soldiers who fought and Florence Nightingale who nursed there. The war was fought by an alliance of Britain, France, Turkey and Sardinia against Russia. The background to the war. Initially an invasion of Moldavia and Walachia against the Ottoman Turks because o their rejection of Russia's demands for a protectorate over Orthodox Christians living within their borders. The Turks encouraged by French support declared war on Russia. Britain joined with France in a declaration of war in 1854. It was a war ruled by incompetence on the British side, under-funded as usual after a period of peace the British forces were ll-prepared and under equipped. This war would see British Battles including Balaclava and the ill-fated disasterous Charge of the Light Brigade. 4600 died in battle, 13,000 were wounded and a staggering 17,000 died of disease. The appalling conditions were real but really no worse than other campaigns of the period. The difference was largely communications, in that the British public were informed and aware due to the 1st War Correspondent W H Russell reporting in the \times, photographers like roger Fenton and the work promoted for better medical care by Florence Nightingale. The outcome of this Crimean War as much more favourable in terms of containing Russia than subsequent attempts by Napoleon and Hitler would prove to be. But when you see the details its far to easy to ask why was Britain fighting this war. But look to the Crimea now...in 2015. Russian expansionism at work again under Putin playing out old stories.Victorian19th
1854Hampshire becomes home to the British ArmyGovernment buy 10,000 acres of land around the small village of Aldershot to establish an army campVictorian19th
1855Henry Bessemer filed a patent for the 'Bessemer Converter'. A means of producing mild steelCold air is blasted into molten iron in the Bessemer Converter, thus reducing the amount of carbon in the iron, making a stronger more versatile productVictorian19th
1856Victoria Cross institutedAwards for Crimean heroes. Queen Victoria instituted the Victoria Cross as the highest British award for valour.Victorian19th
1857Industrial Schools ActUnder the Industrial Schools Act children aged between 7 and 14, convicted of vagrancy could be put into an Industrial School until the age of 16. However not all children came through the courts, some entered voluntarily and some were already in the 'ragged school' system which morphed into Industrial Schools. Victorian19th
1859Matrimonial Causes Act The need for an Act of Parliament for divorce grant was abolished and a womens right to sue was partly enabled if they can prove 2 of 3 charges, men can divorce with just one.Victorian19th
1860First English TramwayThe first English tramway was built in Birkenhead.Victorian19th
1861First London Tramway The first London Tramway was in Bayswater.Victorian19th
1862Hartley Institute founded.Hartley Institute founded in Southampton, later to become Southampton UniversityVictorian19th
1862King Alfred's College foundedThe Diocesan Training College King Alfred's College was founded in Winchester Hampshire, It was one of the first of 27 teacher training colleges established in England by the Church of England.Victorian19th
1862American Civil WarDuring the American Civil War 200,000 free black men and escaped slaves fought for the Union. They were excluded from Victory Parade in Washington DC.Victorian19th
1863American Emancipation ProclamationDeclared during the Civil Military War that slaves were free in the Confederacy (Confederate States.)Victorian19th
1863Metropolitan railway openedThe Metropolitan Railway opened the world's first underground railway on 10 January between Paddington (Bishop's Road) and Farringdon Street.Victorian19th
1865Ku Klux Klan formed by Confederate VeteransThe aim of the Ku Klux Klan was to maintain white control by terrorising the black community. States passed Black Codes to restrict rights of freed slaves.Victorian19th
1865Carriers ActRestricted the speed of steam carriages to 4m.p.h on country roads and 2m.p.h in towns.Victorian19th
1865Assassination of Abraham LincolnAbraham Lincoln was shot dead by an actor named John Wilkes BoothVictorian19th
1865Female doctors.Elizabeth Garrett Anderson became the first licensed female doctor.Victorian19th
1865J. Mills 'Representative Government' publishedRepresentative Government written by J S Mill asserts equality of women and right to the FranchiseVictorian19th
1867London Society for Womens Suffrage foundedLondon Society for Womens Suffrage formed following defeat of 2nd Amendment to the Reform Bill. Societies also formed in Birmingham Bristol Manchester and Edinburgh.Victorian19th
1868Public Schools ActMany of the Public schools in Britain at this time had been established by charitable endowments for the education of a certain number of poor scholars, but were also educating many sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes on a fee-paying basis. It was felt at the time that there was a considerable abuse of the system and this bill was to allow investigation that would regulate and reform them. This act gave them independence from direct jurisdiction. The public schools were Rugby, Winchester College, Eton, Harrow, Charterhouse, Westminster and Shrewsbury.Victorian19th
1869Debtors ActAn Act for the Abolition of Imprisonment for Debt, for the punishment of fraudulent debtors, and for other purposes.Victorian19th
1869 Habitual Criminals ActHowever persistent criminals start to give false names to thwart the Act. The search is on for a reliable identification system. This would result in fingerprinting becoming compulsory for all convicted persons in 1902.Victorian19th
1869Municipal Corporation Act The Municipal Corporation Act, enabled single women to vote in municipal elections.Victorian19th
1869Steam trains travel throughThames Tunnel.First steam trains travel through the Brunels' Thames Tunnel.Victorian19th
1870Elementary Education Act Elementary Education Act enabled women rate-payers to be elected to and vote in school board elections.Victorian19th
1870Girls admitted to Oxford Local ExaminationsWomen had studied at Oxford since the 1870s. But until 1920, they were not admitted as full members, and were not even entitled to claim the degrees they had earned.Victorian19th
1870Married Womens Property act Women can retain £200 of own earnings not all is now in ownership of husband beginnings of enabling women to retain money and propertyVictorian19th
1870Religious tests abolished for Oxbridge University entranceEnds Anglican monopoly of Oxbridge (Oxford and Cambridge University.Victorian19th
1870233 miles of Tramway added in England and WalesThe tramway system was introduced to ease traffic congestion in our increasingly urbanised citiesVictorian19th
1872Central Committee for Womens Suffrage formed Central Committee for Womens Suffrage formed to co-ordinate campaign. Emmeline Goulden later Pankhurst attends suffrage meeting addressed by Lydia ParkerVictorian19th
1873Custody of Infants Act The Custody of Infants Act extends rights of custody of children to all women in the event of separation or divorceVictorian19th
1875Female Poor Law GuardiansWomen could now be elected as Poor Law guardiansVictorian19th
1876Empress of India Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India by Prime Minister Disraeli.Victorian19th
1876Mary Sumner founds the Mother's UnionMary Sumner founded an organisation for women that brought together rich and poor to build a network that would support mothers of all kinds as they brought up their children in Christian faith.Victorian19th
1878Matrimonial Causes Act 1878 revisedTo enable women to receive maintenace, be granted custody and protected from husbands convicted of aggravated assaultVictorian19th
1878Lady Margaret Hall College Oxford University foundedFounded in 1878 Lady Margaret Hall College was the first college to be established for women to enter Oxford.Victorian19th
1878London University accepts womenLondon University opens all it's examinations and degrees to womenVictorian19th
1879Somerville College Oxford foundedSomerville College opened with just 12 young women but it was determined to champion the rights of women to have an education and to gain a degree from Oxford. It was also the first Oxford College to be non-denominational and it remains religiously non-aligned to this day.Victorian19th
1880 Channel TunnelExcavation on both sides of the channel began with the Beaumont & English tunnel boring machine.Victorian19th
1880First Underground Tube tunnelOpening of the first Tube tunnel, from the Tower of London to Bermondsey.Victorian19th
1880Steam and TramsHorsedrawn trams replaced by steam and then electric TramsVictorian19th
1882Married Womens Act The Married Womens Act allowed wives to claim maintenance on desertion by their husbands.Victorian19th
1884Machine Gun inventedMachine Gun developed by Maxim makes mass slaughter possible for first timeVictorian19th
1886Guardianship of Infants Act Guardianship of Infants Act makes women sole guardian of their children in event of husbands deathVictorian19th
1886Canadian Pacific RailwayThe Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were linked by railway for the first time.Victorian19th
1888A Study in Scarlet publishedArthur Conan Doyle writes his first Sherlock Holmes book, 'A Study in Scarle' in PortsmouthVictorian19th
1888Local Government Act Local Government Act 1888 Women could vote for the new County & County Borough CouncilsVictorian19th
1889Eiffel Tower Built in ParisThe plan was to build a tower for the World Fair and so a competition was held to build a tower 125m across and 300 m tall. From many entries it was the design of Gustave Eiffel, an entrepreneur, Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, both engineers, and Stephen Sauvestre, an architect, that was accepted.Victorian19th
1890 The first electric underground railway is opened in South LondonThe City and South London Railway opened the world's first deep-level electric railway on 18 December, from King William Street in the City of London, under the River Thames to Stockwell.Victorian19th
1892Ellis IslandEllis Island immigration reception centre opened in New York.Victorian19th
1893School leaving age raised to elevenIt was recognized that children needed longer in education in order to improve their chances of finding meaningful employment.Victorian19th
1893St Hilda's College Oxford University foundedSt Hilda's was the last of the women’s colleges established in Oxford to give women the right to continue their education. Victorian19th
1894Manchester Ship CanalThe Manchester Ship Canal was opened in 1894 and was the largest river navigation canal in the world. It took six years to build and cost £15 million. It was 58km long and started at the Mersey estuary in Liverpool and terminated at the dock in Manchester.Victorian19th
1895Summary Jurisdiction (Married Women) act 1895Magistrates could grant protection orders to wives driven from homes by cruelty or failure to maintain by their husbands.Victorian19th
1895Kiel Canal opensUnder Kaiser wilhelm II the German navy wanted to link its bases in the Baltic and the North Sea without the need to sail around Denmark and to meet commercial needs. It took 8 years to build and was widened during 1907-1914 to accommodate the larger Dreadnought Warships which in agreement with Britain it was now permitted to build.Victorian19th
1897Sub atomic particle discovedJoseph Thomson discovered sub atomic particlesVictorian19th
1897National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies formedLocal women's suffrage groups came together to form a National UnionVictorian19th
1898Chamberlain attempt to negotiate Anglo-German Alliance FailsThe alliance proposed was to defend British interests in the Far East but Germany refuses to be drawn into potential war with Russia on behalf of the British. This is the start of problems in the Middle East before WW1. German Navy Bill begins build-up for a battle fleet under Wilhelm II. Germany under his leadership looks to race a German Railway from Berlin to Baghdad and positions itself as the protector of Muslim peoples, both regarded as a direct challenge and threat to British interests in the Middle East. The Middle East is the gateway to India and Britain's Empire, plus the need for control of Oil as well as access to India and control of the Ottoman Empire would soon heighten tensions and rivalry. Against this backdrop it is difficult to understand why the Chamberlain's continue to back a path of AppeasementVictorian19th
1899School leaving age raised to twelveAnother rise in the school leaving age to improve the quality of education in Britain.Victorian19th
1899Aspirin inventedThe German dye manufacturer Friedrich Bayer & Co in Elberfeld, investigated the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid and then prepared the first sample of pure acetylsalicylic acid on 10 August 1897. This was marketed in 1899 under the registered trademark of Aspirin. Victorian19th
1900Gold Standard Act in the USThe US goes on Gold Standard as the only standard for redeeming money, previously silver had also been allowed.Victorian20th
1900Labour Representation CommitteeCreated for the promotion of working class candidates for parliamentary seats and the establishment of an independent labour group in the House of Commons.Victorian20th
1900Married women to vote in London Council ElectionsMarried women allowed from 1900 to vote in London Council ElectionsVictorian20th
1900World Exhibition in ParisThe World Fair was held to celebrate achievements over the past century and to look at design and innovation going into the next.Victorian20th
1900London Underground Central Line OpensThis tube line was known as the Central London Railway, the line was extensively extended in the 1940s and is the longest line on the network.Victorian20th
1900German Navy BillGerman Navy Bill provides the platform in the years leading to WW1 for an expanding battle fleet.Victorian19th
1900The Khaki ElectionThe Khaki Election in which a Conservative Unionist government were confirmed in power.Victorian20th
1901Scott's Discovery Expedition leaves for AntarcticaScott sets off on the Discovery expedition to Antarctica undertaking a substantial survey of the continent.Victorian20th
1903Womens Social and Political Union formed Womens Social and Political Union formed to campaign with deeds not words via direct actionEdwardian20th
1904Entente CordialThe deterioration in relations between the European great powers led Britain and France to negotiate the Entente Cordiale. This was a settlement of disputes between the two powers in all parts of the world.Edwardian20th
1905Death of Dr BanardoHe opened his first home in 1867 in Stepney London. Over 100,000 children entered them.Edwardian20th
19051st Suffragette Imprisonments detained after Liberal Rally in ManchesterAnnie Kenney and Christabel Pankhhurst were detainedEdwardian20th
1905Mud March The Mud March was held in the rain, hence it's name , was a procession organised by the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) and took place on 9 February 1907. Around 3,000 women, representing 40 organisations, took part..They marched from Hyde Park Corner to Exeter Hall. Edwardian20th
1906DreadnoughtsDreadnought Class British ship Launched. Armed with the largest guns rather than a variety of sizes, initially powered by steam but subsequently supported by Churchill converted for power by oil making the ships faster, this was a new class of Naval warfare in the making. This first ship was designed and built in just a year, a record then and since. within 10 years the class would be replaced with Super Dreadnoughts but the naval arms race had begun with Britain having the upperhand.Edwardian20th
1907White Star Line Company started TradingWhite Star Line commenced sailings from SouthamptonEdwardian20th
1907German Naval ProgrammeGermany introduces and accelerates its Naval Programme and Ship Building under leadership of Admiral TirpitzEdwardian20th
1907Womens Freedom League breakaway group from Pankhursts led miltant WSPU formedCharlotte Despard and Teresa Billington-Grieg were the leaders. They were anti-militancy of the PankhurstsEdwardian20th
1907Qualification of Women County and Borough Councils Act Qualification of Women County and Borough Councils Act 1907 made women eligible to vote. Women could also be Mayor or Chairman of the Council from that dateEdwardian20th
1908The Underground name first appeared The Underground name first appeared on London stations.Edwardian20th
1908Ford Motor COmpanyFord begins mass production of the Model T Motor CarEdwardian20th
1908Childrens ActPart of a Liberal reform and one of the most important acts surrounding care and protection of children. It was a far reaching act and included the establishment of juvenile courts, the registration of foster parents, thus regulating baby-farming and wet-nursing and trying to stamp out infanticide. Local authorities were also granted powers to keep poor children out of the workhouse and protect them from abuse. The act also prevented children working in dangerous trades and prevented them from purchasing cigarettes and entering pubs. Children had been subject to centuries of abuse and neglect, this act began to reverse the process.Edwardian20th
1908Hyde Park demonstrationWomen's Demonstration in Hyde Park attended by estimated 250,000Edwardian20th
1908Pankkhursts and Flora Drummond arrested Pankkhursts and Flora Drummond arrested for obstruction attempting to march on Parliament. They received 3 months imprisonment in Holloway PrisonEdwardian20th
1909Bleriot flies the ChannelThe Frenchman took off in his monoplane from Calais and 31 mins later crossed the English cliffs near Dover.Edwardian
1909People's BudgetConstitutional crisis of the People's budgetEdwardian20th
1909Marion Wallace Dunlop on Hunger strikePublic outcry at force-feeding by Prison authorities of Marion Wallace Dunlop on Hunger strike. Marions hunger strike was in protest at detainment as criminal as opposed to political prisoner.Edwardian20th
1909Britain accelerates ship buildingBritain build 18 Battleships to Germany's 9 a huge acceleration in British Shipbuilding.The bitter battle for Naval ships against the People's budget had been partly resolved and Britain's industrial might got set tow work building 18 warships in just 3 years.
1910Conciliation Bill defeatedBlack Friday Violence between Police and Suffragettes outside Parliament. Confrontation followed defeat of the 1st Conciliation Bill which was an all-party measure which would have given women householders the voteWIndsor20th
1911Agadir CrisisFrench-German rivalry reaches boiling point in Morocco. France was annexing Morocco under the guise of assisting the Sultan to resist a local rebellion Germany reacted quickly and in a hostile manner by the despatch of its warship anther to the area. Britain feared that Germany would build a naval base at Agadir and threatened war in response. An international conference resolved the dispute temporarily, giving territory in the Congo to Germany as compensation. The French continued control of Morocco and the British and French drew diplomatically closer. Britain and France agreed that in the event of war France would deploy its navy in the Mediterranean and Britain would defend its Northern coast via the Channel. The defence of France had in one stroke become central to British foreign policy and further alienated Germany from Britain.WIndsor20th
1912British Antartic ExpeditionThe British Antarctic Expedition under the command of Captain Robert Falcon Scott left England in 1910. They reached the Pole only to discover the Norwegian explorer Amundsen had got there a month earlier. The party perished on the return journey.WIndsor
1912Sinking of the TitanicOn her maiden voyage the largest ship afloat was steaming full speed ahead when she struck an iceberg and sank . 1513 people lost their lives.WIndsor
1912Suffragettes Riot following Defeat of 2nd Concilliation Bill in Londons west endShop windows Smashed Emmeline Pankhurst arrested Christabel flees to Paris FranceWIndsor20th
1913Prisoners Temporary Discharge Act introduced by Liberal GovernmentProvision to enable hunger strikers to be released until they were well enough again to serve their sentancesWIndsor20th
1913Britain urges Germany to halt ship buildingBritain requests mutual halt to naval reconstruction programmes but ignored by GermanyWIndsor20th
1913WSPU commits Arson and Bombing following Abandonment of General electoral Reform Bill Emmeline Pankhurst imprisoned for 3 years for burning LLoyd Georges residence and considered herself a prisoner of Military WarWIndsor20th
1913Death of Emily Davison Emily Davison dies after throwing herself under the Kings Horse at Epsom. Status of matyr conferred on her by WPSUWIndsor20th
1914WWI Archduke Fran Ferdinand assasinated at SarajevoAustria-Hungary seek to exploit blaming Serbia. Reaction across Europe leads o multiple declarations of War between Jul-Aug. When Germany invaded neutral Belgium Britain declared war on Germany.This single act fuels the firs of Military War.WIndsor20th
1914Chance to head off warFalse dawn of hope of avoiding war when Britain and Germany discuss Africa and reach Agreement on Southern Persia. It was hoped these negotiations would head-off war but that was not to be the case.WIndsor20th
1914Womens Militant Campaign Suspended at outbreak of War for duration of WWI Pankhurst releasedMrs Pankhurst becomes a patriot and encourages womens Military War service in industrial employmentWIndsor20th
1916Easter RisingCarefully orchestrated move the rising was launched by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the United Kingdom was heavily engaged in the First World War.Windsor
1917Speakers Conference on electoral reform Speakers Conference on electoral reform recommends a limited number of women given the votesWIndsor20th
1917Balfour DeclarationA short letter with arguably massive consequences or at least symbol of the Middle east protracted conflict in Palestine that continues to this day. It was a letter written to a British member of the Rothschilds who was representative of British Jewish Society and at least sympathetic to the Zionist cause. Follow this site and watch our Middle East collection for more to follow on the importance of a single short letter written and redrafted many times, agreed by the British Cabinet which set momentous events in motion.WIndsor20th
1919Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of VersaillesThe treaty agreed by the Allies after WW1 but with the exception of the USA which withdrew its support for the treaty due to a backlash against President Wilson's policy by the American congress. Britain had want a more balanced settlement but the eventual punitive agreement imposed very harsh terms on Germany and was part of what would contribute in the years that followed to the conditions that at least least that led to WW2, with the resentment by Germany of the loss of all its territories as part of a treaty it had no say in and argued it had never agreed to as part of the terms of surrender in 1918.WIndsor20th
1923Matrimonial Causes ActMatrimonial Causes act 1923 allows Adultery alone as just grounds for women to sue for divorceWIndsor20th
1926General StrikeBritain's miners walked out and in a move of solidarity, other industry workers joined them, this was the first ever general strike in BritainWIndsor20th
1928Representation of the People Act (equal franchaise)Men and women given equality in voting. It gave the vote to all women over 21 years old, regardless of property ownership.WIndsor20th
1929Stock Market CrashThe stock market crash of 1929 was a four-day collapse of stock prices that began on October 24, 1929. It was the worst decline in U.S. history. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped 25 percent. It lost $30 billion in market value. The 'Great Slump' began in 1929 and then deepened for 3 - 4 years. In Britain it broke the second Labour government and in America it led to Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. In Germany it led to Hitler.WIndsor20th
1930Tramways began to be abandonedTramways began to be abandoned by Local authorities for Motor Bus servicesWIndsor20th
1933Diagrammatic Underground mapFirst London underground map in diagrammatic form, devised by Harry Beck.WIndsor20th
1933Nazi rally at NurembergVast and theatrically staged rallies were a feature of the Nazi party's rise and continued after Hitler was made Chancellor in 1933.
1935Anglo German Naval agreementA compromise agreement between Germany and Britain enabling Germany post Treaty of Versailles to increase its naval tonnage to up to 35% of the British capital ships and up to 45% of Britain's submarines. This was part and parcel of Appeasement and the circumstances that would build-up to the 2nd world war known as the Appeasement led by Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain as Britain's Prime Ministers.WIndsor20th
1936Anglo-Egyptian TreatyThis treaty formally ended British occupation of Egypt. whilst Britain retained a garrison and control over the Suez Canal Zone. Britain retained the right to occupy again in the event of war and unrestricted use of roads, ports and airports if required. This legitimised the use of Egypt as a pivotal base for Middle East operation in WW2.WIndsor20th
1937Matrimonial Causes actMatrimonial Causes act 1937 adds desertion and insanity as grounds for divorceWIndsor20th
1938Chamberlain returned from MunichHitler began his invasions of his European neighbours. After Austrian came Czechoslovakia. France was bound by treaty to Czechoslovakia and Britain to France. War seemed inevitable but then Hitler agreed to meet Chamberlain who came away with a piece of paper signed by Hitler which he accepted as a 'No more War' pledge.
1939Outbreak of World War IIThe second great war of the C20th in which countries all over the world aligned to either the Allies or the Axis.WIndsor20th
1945Family allowance act Family allowance act 1945 allows allowance to be paid directly to mothersWIndsor20th
1945First atomic bomb droppedOn the morning of 6th August a US aircraft dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima Japan. Nearly 200,000 people were killed and injured.
1948National Health Service was foundedThe National Health Service was born out of Sir William Beveridge’s report, Social Insurance and Allied Services, proposes major changes to create the foundations for a welfare system and, in its support, a national health serviceWIndsor20th
1949Legal Aid actLegal Aid act makes divorce possible for those previously deterred by expenseWIndsor20th
1967Abortion act Abortion act 1967 allows termination of pregnancy on social and /or medical groundWIndsor20th
1969Divorce Reform Act The Divorce Reform Act was a major step forward. It allowed couples to divorce after they had been separated for two years (or five years if only one of them wanted a divorce). A marriage could be ended if it had irretrievably broken down, and neither partner no longer had to prove "fault".WIndsor20th
1969Ordination of women in ScotlandChurch of Scotland ordains women as ministersWIndsor20th
1969Creation of United Reform ChurchThe United Reformed Church was a union of the Presbyterian Church of England and the majority of churches in the Congregational Church in England and Wales.WIndsor20th
1970Equal Pay Act Equal Pay Act 1970 women must be paid same if doing the same or broadly similar job to a manWIndsor20th
1973Britain joined Common MarketBritain joined the Common Market along with Denmark and Ireland. The Common Market became the European Union.WIndsor20th
1975Social Security Pensions ActSocial Security Pensions Act 1975 secures womens right to earn a full pensionWIndsor20th
1975Employment Protection Act Employment Protection Act 1975 gives statutory rights to maternity leave protection for unfair dismissal and the right to go back to same job after a maternity leave periodWIndsor20th
1975Sex Discrimination ActSex Discrimination Act made it illegal to discriminate against women for Education housing employment and any public services etcWIndsor20th
1976Queen Elizabeth II's Silver JubileeThe Queen's Jubillee celedrating 25 years of her reign was celebrated by the whole country.WIndsor20th
1982Falklands WarThe Falkland Islands are a remote UK colony in the South Atlantic. O 2nd April Argentina invaded the islands with the intention of reclaiming sovereignty of the islands which it said it had inherited them from Spain in the 1800s. The British govenrment were not prepared to allow that to happen to the islands which it had ruled for 150 years. A task force was sent to reclaim the islands, 8,000 miles away. In the fighting that followed, 655 Argentine and 255 British servicemen lost their lives, as did three Falkland Islanders.WIndsor20th
2003Iraq WarA us led coalition that invaded Iraq with the intention of overthrowing the government of Saddam Hussein. WIndsor
2008Global financial crisisWorld economics will never be the same againWIndsor
1812Anglo American WarAnglo American War also known as the American War of 1812. The British were attempting, far from their own shores to 'press' (press-gang) American sailors on their own ships arguing that they were by rights British and therefore subject to the right to pressed into Naval service for Britain. The Americans were fighting the British blockade of France during the Napoleonic wars as well as seeking to further their own territorial ambitions and in particular border disputes concerning Canada.
1895Ahglo German rivalryAnglo German Rivalry. Two Empires and the buildup to War. A series of events that many historians believe to have been key factors in the origins of WW1. One imperial power and industrial power on the rise Germany and Britain in relative decline.Victorian19th
1895The calamitous Jameson RaidThe failure of the Jameson Raid on Kruger's Transvaal Republic The subject of the Kruger Telegram and a British botched raid conducted under the leadership Dr Storr Jameson, Administrator of the British South African Company. Jameson was captured, Rhodes had to resign (as in Rhodes Scholars) and Joseph Chamberlain was exonerated but subsequently evidence shows he may have supported and approved the attack as Colonial Secretary. But there was more to his raid than just wanting to create an uprising. Rhodes had merged his De Beers diamond business with Beit and they wanted to combine their Diamond business with Gold Mining in the Transvaal. Hard cash drove their enterprise with Beit funded to the tune of £400k a large sum at that time. The Kruger Telegram sent by Kaiser Wilhelm to President Kruger of the declared Transvaal Republic. Wilhelm II was the grandson of Queen Victoria. He sen this telegram o the South AFrican Boer leader congratulating him on the outcome Jameson Raid. It was an act, if somewhat foolish one designed to urge Britain to join the German led Triple Alliance. Not only did it fail but it raised British public opinion against Germany and made clear the need for Britain to escape from the diplomatic isolation as the world's greatest imperial power in decline from diplomatic isolation.
1954Suez CrisisThe Suez Canal was vital to Britain after WWII. It was central to maintaining links with its remaining overseas possessions and the main source of oil in the Middle East. Britain had retained a series of military bases in Egypt located along the length of the canal in an area known as the Canal Zone. The Egyptians became increasingly frustrated by the continuing British presence and started to attack these posts. Political events inside Egypt intensified Egyptian demands to control of the Suez Canal and seized all European-owned property. Two years later, Britain agreed to withdraw its troops from the Canal Zone by June 1956.WIndsor20th